Tag Archives: kashmir

Facts on Article 370 and accession of Kashmir

Article 370 / autonomy was not in exchange of Accession.

In certain situations as a student of history, it is important to understand the sequence of events and decisions. If the sequence is lost, the essence of history is lost.Some people do it unknowingly others do it deliberately to further their agenda.

The history of Jammu Kashmir & Ladakh goes back to more than 5000 years of Sanatan Dharam, Kashmir Shaivism, Bhuddism and Islam. The aboriginal Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists have been going through simmering #Genocide, induced displacement and migration since the religious fundamentalists have adopted violent ways of killing and converting people from other faiths. The language used in Kashmir till 1300’s was Sanskrit with Devnagri and Shaarda Script. It was changed to Persian because of the invading rulers. After the beginning of Dogra rule the official language was changed to Urdu.

Before Anglo Sikh war Raja Gulab Singh was heading Jammu region for Lahore Government. In this war, the Lahore government was defeated by britishers and was supposed to pay an indemnity of one and half crore to britishers. Since Lahore government was not in a position to pay full amount and britishers were not in a position to go for another war with Dogra ruler, an amount of 750000 Nanakshahis was paid by Raja Gulab Singh, where after britishers ceded the region of Jammu and Kashmir to Gulab Singh. Some people are hell bent to suggest Kashmir was sold to Maharaja where as fact of the matter is – The State of Jammu and Kashmir was ceded to Maharaja Gulab Singh by virtue of Treaty of Lahore in 1846.

Maharaja Hari Singh did not wish to join either pakistan or India, although he ultimately acceded with India; it was to protect his subjects and the state from invasion led by pakistan in violation of the Standstill Agreement signed between state of J&K and pakistan before 15thAugust 1947. As a consequence of his wish he probably wanted to have some kind of autonomy to govern his state Jammu and Kashmir. Article 370 in some ways could have been a consequence of Maharaja’s wishes, but the governance after accession was rapidly moving out of his hands to National Conference. In 1932 Muslim Conference was established which was later renamed as National Conference and was led by Sheikh Abdullah. In 1953 Jawahar Lal Nehru realised his mistake of supporting and promoting Sheikh Abdullah and ultimately he detained Sheikh Abdullah for 11years.

Partition of British India happened on the basis of religion – two nation theory. As an extension of this concept, founders of pakistan desired to have as many pakistans within the geographical boundary of Indian Dominion, which for obvious reasons was not allowed by Sardar Patel / India. Every thing that pakistan has been trying since 15thAugust 1947, has been in pursuance of their desire to illegally annex Kashmir. As a consequence pakistan has always considered India / J&K as its enemy no.1.

Pakistan in violation of standstill agreement with J&K -a land locked state- stopped its trade routes, which were till then historically used for movement of essential commodities like fuel, wheat, cloth ammunition etc. to the state, it also blocked posts and telegraph links to J&K.
Over and above, pakistan attacked and killed thousands of kashmiri hindus, muslims, sikhs and christians to annex J&K .

Article 370 was a mechanism of allowing a separatist state by not allowing many fundamental rights to millions of people – Kashmiri Hindus, Dalits, Refugees from pakistan,Valmikis, Gorkhas, women who married outside the state of J&K and was also damaging India from within.

In a Secular Democratic Republic of India the constitution of India is very liberal towards minorities and hence there was no need to actually have a separate constitution for a state adjoining pakistan. But J&K was allowed to have a separate constitution which did not allow unconditional free flow of laws for the subjects of J&K, even though they were applicable for the remaining states of India. Over and above, the article 35A was inducted via presidential order without approval of Indian Parliament, which allowed government of J&K to define citizens of the state – effectively we had citizens of India who were not citizens of J&K and the constitution of J&K was biased against citizens of India.

In the mean time punjabes from west pakistan which dominated the military establishment of pakistan started discriminatory tactics with the people of east pakistan mostly bengali, who were culturally different. East pakistan revolted against west pakistan which culminated in formation of Bangladesh as a separate country after 1971 IndoPak war even though both parts of pakistan had been established on the policy of same religion.

After defeat in the war of 1971, former military head of pakistan Zia ul haq in 80s devised a strategy known as operation TOPAC.Basic objective of this strategy was to annex Kashmir with pakistan and to destabilise India. Even today this is the foundational strategy used in one or the other form. Due to lack of political will the parties heading J&K and Indian government till now were knowingly or unknowingly allowing pakistan to make deeper inroads in Kashmiri and Indian civil society. The effects of this prolonged self imposed servitude shown by then governments of J&K and India has now necessitated an unprecedented Government lock down in Jammu and Kashmir, even though unofficial continuous lock downs have lasted at least 13 days in past which were called as hartal or Civil Curfew; effectively making the paradise of Kashmir a living hell for common masses living across the province.

The fact that whole J&K including PoJ&K, Ladakh and Gilgit Baltistan acceded with India. The territory which is in control of countries other than India is the disputed territory not the area within the current geographical boundaries of India.

The misconception created by vested interests to suggest a freedom movement by the some people gets defeated by the fact that genocide and massacre of Hindus and Sikhs was being perpetrated in the name of religious fundamentalism as driven by pakistan agenda to annex J&K.

By:Ravin
Reference:My frozen turbulences in Kashmir- Sh.Jagmohan

A History of Kashmir-Sh.PNK Bamzai

PARMESHWARI AGITATION –1967

The HIGH & LOW OF KP AGITATION 1967

Parmeshwari Agitation of 1967 is 52 years old. During these 52 years much water has flown down the Jehlum, Changes in all spheres have taken place beyond imaginations. The men and women who took part or have an appreciable impression of the month long agitation and are alive are over 70 years old ——- leading a well earned retired life , looking after their grand children or nursing their old age health problems. 50 years is a very long period to remember vividly all that happened during the agitation. So it is natural they may have nearly forgotten or at best might be having some faded impressions.This write up is to revive the memories of that agitation among the elders and for the youngsters of the community to draw their own conclusions.

This writer was a college student during the agitation. I was born in a family where Politics and Journalism had already taken birth since 1939. A large family consisting of more than 30 members would sit together after the Dinner to discuss every thing under the Sun.This was the order of the day. Most of the time our immediate neighbours would also join the discussions .Such discussions had helped us to be rational thinkers.This writer shared what ever observed or seen during the day and get corrected after interaction with the family members. The month of JULY brings me back the month long memory of the agitation , hence this write up.

Many intellectuals & authors have written about this agitation . Almost all of them have blamed the majority community for having engineered and helped the handing over of Parmeshwari to her Muslim paramour . But we have turned blind eye how our own people helped her to be handed over to her paramour. The main purpose of this write up is to put the record STRAIGHT. Sitting in the glass houses and throwing stones at others is not the solution. While we have the liberty of putting the blame at the door of others , we should first clean our own house. Let the future generations and research scholars have both the views in front of them and make their own conclusions. I would request the readers to go through the write up and express their opinions freely with out any reservations. This writer will welcome both the brickbats and bouquets.

I have deliberately avoided the names in the write up. Most of them are dead and by naming them this writer does not want that their descendants should be visited by the sins of their elders . I have kept the month long happenings to the briefest lest reader looses the plot while going through it.

PARMESHWARI AGITATION —-1967

The Spring of 1967 had given way to the Summer. The days become large , sky clear and the temperature rising with humidity. The people of the valley were enjoying the last month of Summer —- August , and every thing looked hunky dory.Little did the people know that a volcano was brewing in the centre of Lal Chowk. The epicentre of the volcano was the ground floor of LALLA RUKH HOTEL, which was the retail centre of groceries of the Govt. Co -operative department ( a very poor cousin of present day Mall) along side the old city bus stand very near to the Tyndale Biscoe School. The store had many sales people ( both girls & men ) .
Among the Sales Staff, one of the sales girl was PARMESHWARI ( the daughter of a widow residing in Bagh Jogi Lanker , Rainawari ) , and the other other was GHULAM RASOOL KANT( resident of Wazapora , Ali kadal ).Working in the same place and under one roof they started liking each other. Incidentally , the Manager of the Co operative outlet was a burly mustached Kashmiri Pandit , resident of Bagh Jogi Lanker ,Rainawari(the writer does not want to name him ) living just 500 meters from the residence of Parmeshwari . The romance between the two was happening before his eyes but ,kept silent for reasons best known to him. It is a mere presumption now that had he spoken to her widow mother the situation could have been saved. The romance having reached a point of no return , the two decided to go for marriage. Parmeshwari eloped and started living with Gh. Rasool Kanth.

The widow mother lodged a missing report about her daughter. The widow also approached some KP Leaders who became active and got in touch with the police. Their contention was that the girl is minor and has been abducted, the girl should be restored to her mother. But the Birth record and the Municipality record showed that she is “MAJOR”. The news was leaked to the muslim controlled vernacular press who lapped it up and prominently published it. At the same time the news spread like wild fire among the KP community. The murmurs started getting louder and louder. Sensing the grave situation the State authorities instructed the DIG Police, Kashmir to get hold of the girl and hand her over to the mother. The DIG Police Kashmir range happened to be a tall handsome Kashmiri Pandit IPS officer who thought that he was the only honest and efficient police officer who knew the rules and regulations at the tip of his tongue ( the writer does not want to name the officer). Going through the birth records , he declared that the girl is major and can decide about her future. In fact a meeting between Mother and daughter ——- who by now had changed her name to PARVEEN AKHTAR, in presence of KP activists in the police station was arranged. She tersely told her mother that she knew about the whole affair because Gh. Rasool would come to our home quite often. The mild tremors started assuming the shape of earth quake high on the Richter scale. Two types of “PROTESTS” started . One was the day protest held on the streets and the other was the evening protest where fiery speeches were delivered on the lawns of the SHEETAL NATH —— Head quarters of the All India Kashmiri Pandit sabha. This writer would deal separately lest it causes confusion.

DAY PROTESTS

The news spread like wild fire not only in J&k but in all the principal cities of India where ever there was a sizable population of the community. Since Electronic media had not come up of the age ,the print media both local and National lapped it and splashed the news on their front pages.In the meantime “ACTION COMMITTEE ” was constituted by the community. The members of the Action committee were the much known faces of the community. The Action Committee had its HQ in Sheetal Nath premises where from programmes and press releases were being issued. The community had become quite restive and was hell bent upon for a show down with the state government.The community took to the streets in unprecedented large numbers spearheaded by the women and girls.The Kashmir watchers who had witnessed protests on the streets at different times were shocked to see the huge numbers of the community women and girls taking to the streets. Known for being mostly the home makers and keeping inside their homes , It shocked everybody including the majority community. Wearing their traditional dress the SAREES , tightened around their waistline, they raised the slogans against the government by raising their arms in fists, they faced and stood rock like in facing the tear gas shells and lathis of the state police. They never ran for shelter and showering of shells and lathis added to their zeal by making their protests more and more vociferous. With lowered jaws and shocked expectations the majority community would throng the places in huge numbers where the protest was going to be held. By and large they conceded that they never had expected such strong and unprecedented resentment.
This writer was witness to one protest held at BAJAJ TOWERS in front of Broca Press .The tall handsome KP DIG came in a jeep thinking that he will himself manage the protesters. Hardly had he stepped down from his jeep than he was attacked by the women protesters who encircled him like attacking bees , pulling at his starch pressed uniform and tearing it. His security staff could not reach him while he was being pushed and pulled. It was the timely intervention of Late Sh. T N Dhar, the then President of Valley JAN SANGH who threw himself around the DIG and pushed him inside his jeep. But for his intervention the handsome tall DIG would have been stripped naked.

Watching another such protest in the Regal Chowk , Late Shamim Ahmed Shamim , the sarcastic and sadistic pleasure loving , M.P. & Journalist wrote in his newspaper “AINA” .” He has watched many protests held at different times , by male protesters , who would run for the nearest shelter after being lathi charged and being showered by the tear gas shells. My shocking surprise came when I watched the protest of Kashmiri Pandit women. They faced the tear gas shells standing rock like and occasionally throwing these back to the police. salute to their bravery and firm conviction”.

Jammu division was also affected by the protests . Jammu city which had a sizable population of Kashmiris also took to the streets in order to show their solidarity with the brethren and sisters of Kashmir. The local people though did not take active part but gave moral support . Says Sh. Bushan Parimoo, Journalist & environmentalist , who was one of those who spearheaded the protest, the young men and women had formed a group who would perform underground activities in which girls became the “INFORMATION CARRIERS” hood winking the police.

Same type of protests were being carried out in the principal cities of the country where the community had a sizable presence. Funds were being collected in addition to medicines and other things. They were contacting the local media and giving them the exact details .
Back in the valley the protests were getting more and more intensified — the whole credit should go to the women and girls. This writer was witness to the huge number of women and girls coming all the way from Rainawari footing the distance to reach the specific places of protests.

By now the state government realised that they had under estimated the situation and they had been caught with their pants down. The unnerved administration did not know how to control the situation . In order to break the agitation they resorted to the mass arrests of the community. Night knocking of the doors by the police became the order of the day. The central Jail got filled with hundreds of arrested people.The busy body Principal of the Women’s College — a close friend of Mr. Sadiq tried to help the Government by closing the gates of the college so that the girls don’t come out for the protest. To compound the difficulties of the government differences between Sadiq and Mir Qasim ( President State Congress) surfaced. Central Government was also a mute spectator. They were caught in a situation of between the deep sea and the devil. They did not want to antagonise the majority population while having sympathy with the minority. The vote bank policy plays a vital role in a democratic set up. According to well informed sources Sadiq had offered to resign but was persuaded not to.

EVENING PROTEST

After the day long protest the people would Que to Shital Nath, the head quarters of the “ACTION COMMITTEE” where from the “FARMANS” were issued for the next day. The people would come in large numbers and make themselves where ever they could find space in the uneven lawn. An improvised platform had been made where the honorable members of the action committee would sit. The people would jostle for the front rows where from they could see the faces of the speakers.Fiery and tsunami like speeches were delivered . The speakers while delivering the speeches violently shook their bodies —— infact one of the senior action committee member used to wear turban —— he had to make efforts to keep it on the head lest it falls down. The crowd would lustily cheer and greet them with the slogan “PANJA NARA PANDVAN DA CHATTA NARA JAI HIND”.Most of the senior members of the action committee had JAN SANGH/ RSS leanings.As the days wore on the stage was slowly “CAPTURED” by young men who were mostly unemployed or had some personal grudge for the authorities for not considering them for the professional institutions. Slowly the agenda of “RETURN OF PARMESHWARI” went down the priority list or was “PUT ON THE BACK BURNER”. They would attack the government for not providing them jobs.The speakers who would start with Kashmiri shifted to Hindi/urdu and finally to English. They would use such words which were not found in Oxford dictionary. Says , Bushan Parimoo who was a prominent member of the Jammu agitation, was invited by the Action committee to speak from the dias.But the “Young Brigade” did not give them time even after waiting for 3 days. This made Dr. Karan Singh , who was a central cabinet minister , to tell the Jammu people that ” THE KPS DO NOT WANT “KUDI” ( GIRL) they want NAUKRI The senior leaders were watching this with mute silence and helplessly. The speeches became more personal , with individuals having their own agendas.

At this stage the writer wants to bring to the notice of the readers a view from an “old Kashmiri hand”. The person was none other than Pt. PREM NATH BAZAZ—— an experienced Kashmiri Pandit , having been a top community leader , journalist, political analyst and a reputed author. He was in Srinagar during the agitation period. He would quietly sit in the office of his old disciple, the veteran Journalist Sh. N L WATTAL, who by now had become the Chief Editor of the prestigious newspaper ” The Daily KHIDMAT” , dipping himself in newspapers /books/magazines. Said Sh Wattal —— quote” As the agitation was gathering momentum day after day, I also got emotionally involved. Bazaz Sahab never commented on it. When the agitation was at peak , he broke his silence. ” Nand Lal I can see that you too have been overtaken by the agitation. I nodded “Yes”. To which Bazaz replied :- Quote
” THERE NEVER HAS BEEN A MASSIVE AGITATION FROM OUR COMMUNITY LIKE THIS , NOR THERE WILL BE IN FUTURE. BUT ALL THIS MASSIVE ENERGY WILL END IN A SMOKE. THE LEADERS LACK VISION , THEY ARE INCAPABLE, THEY HAVE THEIR OWN AGENDAS, VESTED INTERESTS. THE “DISCIPLE” PROTESTED BUT THE “GURU” STUCK TO HIS WORDS. Little did the disciple know that the “GURU” was an old hand and had known these leaders much earlier. What happened to the agitation is now history. The “GURU” proved to be MICHEL de NOSTREDAME of Kashmir.

While the agitation was at peak , Jan Sangh wanted to cash in on it. They dispatched their senior leader Balraj Madhok to add fuel to the fire.While delivering his characteristic fiery speech he told the Muslims to go to Pakistan.This was the opportunity for which the State Government was waiting. The State government instigated the majority community with the local urdu media controlled mostly by Muslims to express their strong protest against the speech of Balraj Madhok. After setting the valley on fire Madhok left for Delhi next day leaving the KP community at the mercy of the God. The situation changed totally over night. The next morning dawned with the majority community observing total Bandh, huge processions, killings, physical assaults on the minority community, looting of their shops and burning of their houses.Says, Sh. P N PANDITA, ( Retd , Chief Conservator of Forests) , their family lived in a house in Karan Nagar. When the family members returned after the day work , they found the house in flames and the goons cheering. All they could salvage was the clothes they were wearing and the “LIFE”. The police had been instructed to look “other Way” while all this was taking place. The State Government was bent upon “TEACHING A LESSON’ to the minority community.They planted some of our community men as “SPIES” in the central Jail who would report to the state authorities. This continued for several days. The entire city was put under curfew.As if this was not enough , the state Government released the criminals from their barracks and asked them to attack the KP arrested people and beat them black and blue. All this was being carried out to please the majority community.The death toll of KP Community during this period of arson and looting rose to nearly 12.

MEDIA — A DIVIDED HOUSE.

The print media became a divided house. The local urdu press controlled mostly by the majority community publishing news palatable to the majority community. The National Press whose correspondents were mostly from the minority community maintained a balance by blaming the state government for their ineffective role in controlling the goons who went on rampage. Says Sh. J N Dhar, the then Special Correspondent AIR ( Now the Chief Editor of “KOSHUR SAMACHAR”) the state government complained against his reporting to his superiors but his superiors stood by him saying “there is no doubt about the balanced and unbiased reporting of Sh. JN Dhar”.

BURIAL OF THE DAY & EVENING PROTESTS

With the imposition of the curfew the day long protests came to a grinding halt. In the same way the “the fire spitting young hot heads disappeared from the Sheetal Nath dais taking refuge in their homes. While all this was happening some of the senior leaders of the action committee were busy establishing links with the state authorities. During the day they would spit fire and during the night they would sit with the state authorities to discuss their own “personal agendas”.This “CHANNEL TWO ” ( a word coined after 1990) diplomacy between the Scoundrels and scalawags ( the so called Netas) , the community brokers , was confirmed by the then Home Secretary ( Speaker turned IAS bureaucrat ) , during his post retirement days which he would spend at the office of the Daily “KHIDMAT” ( he would write centre page articles for the paper occasionally).

AWAKENING OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

The agitation had become a National News. The so called Secular parties like Congress, Leftists, in order to settle scores with Jan Sangh party jumped into the fray by advising the minority community of Kashmiri Pandits to maintain the age old fabric of brotherhood and secular values , carefully avoiding any comment on the majority community , solely because of vote bank policy. When enough water had flown down the Jehlum , Delhi woke up. They despatched the then Home Minister of GOI , Sh. Y B Chavan, to the valley. The State Government was represented by their Home Minister.

CREMATION OF AGITATION
Mr Chavan held parleys with different groups. While appealing for the end of agitation , he asked the “Action Committee” to submit memorandum. Dissensions had already started in the “Action Committee”. Fierce differences appeared on what should be included in the memorandum. The Netas who had established links with the state authorities were eager to present the memorandum to end the agitation because of their own personal agendas. A sort of agreement was reached between the Netas and the young hot heads . Ultimately the young hot heads had their way . They prepared the list of demands keeping their own demands such as employment, more seats in the professional colleges etc and the last demand was for the return of Parmeshwari. The Netas though not satisfied with the draft were in a hurry to call off the agitation for their own interests. The agitation was formally called off. Mud slinging started between the leaders blaming each other for the termination of the agitation for their own interests. The scoundrels and scalawags of the community in a shameless way trying to wriggle out of the mess they had created placed the blame at the door of the State Home Minister. Though this writer has never been a fan of that Minister belonging to our community , he never used the platform of the community to rise to such position.

CREMATION OF THE AGITATION

The month long agitation was put on the pyre and lit by the shameless, graceless, disgusting “leaders” of the community.
The supreme sacrifice of our women and girls who left their homes and hearths without caring for their siblings, walking long distances from their homes in the hot weather of Summer to reach the places of protests ended in a smoke.They bore the maximum brunt of the police LATHIS, Tear Gas shells,water canons.This writer has no hesitation in saluting their guts, determination and bravery. I would call them “JHANSI RANIS OF SRINAGAR”. The people who got killed, the people whose houses were set on fire, who were physically assaulted, those who were attacked by the hardened criminals inside the premises of the central jail. All this went up in a smoke within minutes.

GAJENDARGADKAR COMMISSION

The Government of India constituted a Single man commission headed by the Retired Chief Justice of India , Sh. Gajendargadkar to look into the grievances of the community based on the memorandum submitted by the “Action Committee”. How much seriously the community took this commission that only 3 affidavits were submitted before the commission. Commendable is the performance of one Smt. VEENA Dhar , who argued the case before the commission extempore without any papers. Said Late Sh. R K DULLOO, Retd District and Sessions Judge , that the community did not present their case properly.The so called “NETAS” were busy distributing loaves and fishes among themselves, they had no time for this waste ful exercise.

THE LAST LAUGH FOR THE MONTH LONG AGITATION WAS THE GAJENDARGADKAR COMMISSION.

Before I conclude , writer would ask some questions and request the readers to reply these :-

Q No 1 DID ANY MEMBER OF THE COMMUNITY ASK THE TALL HANDSOME THE THEN KP DIG POLICE OFFICER WHY HE DID NOT HAND OVER PARMESHWARI TO HER MOTHER , DESPITE BEING TOLD BY THE AUTHORITIES. THIS GENTLEMAN LIVED IN DELHI , ATTENDED ALL THE MEETINGS/SEMINARS BY THE KP ORGANISATIONS. IN THE POST MIGRANT PERIOD?

Q. No :- 2. DID ANY MEMBER ASK THE BURLY MOUSTACHED KP MANAGER OF THE Govt. Co Opertive Store , WHY HE DID NOT INFORM THE MOTHER OF PARMESHWARI, WHO WAS LIVING JUST 500 Meters from his house?

Q. No :- 3. WHAT HAPPENED TO LAKHS OF RUPEES AND MEDICINES THAT WERE COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS PARTS BY KP ORGANISATIONS AND IN SOME CASES AIRLIFTED TO SRINAGAR. HAS ANY BODY ASKED THIS QUESTION ? NO, NONE. NOT A SINGLE PENNY WAS PAID TO THE DESCENDANTS WHO LAID DOWN THEIR LIVES?

By-Mr. V.K. Wattal

The legend of Kapeteswara

The valley of the Arpath or Harsapatha, which opens to the east of Anantnag, is also known as Kuthar. The name is in all probability connected with that of the ancient Tirtha of KAPATESVARA, situated on the Southern side of the valley close to the village of Kother. The name of the latter is undoubtedly a derivative of Kapateshwara as the analogy of Jyether<Jyeshthesvara, Triphar<Tripuresvara, etc. clearly shows.

The place of pilgrimage is the sacred spring of PAPASUNDA(Sin removing), situated a short distance above Kother near Acchabal. In it Lord Shiva is believed to have shown himself in the disguise(Kapata) of pieces of wood floating on the water. The legend is related at length in the Nilmata, and the author of the Haracaritacintamani devotes to it a separate canto which has now become the Official Mahatmaya of the Tirtha.

According to Nilmata; Once many sages stood in great penance on the sacred bank of Drsadvati in Kurukshetra to have a sight of Rudra-the lord of the Gods. Impressed by their Devotion, Shiva told them in a Dream to go soon to Kasmira where there is a spacious and immaculate abode of the Naga. He told them that there he would be visible in Disguise. Having heard him in a dream they all reached the abode of the Naga. They could not see even a little water, for the water was all covered with pieces of wood. Moving the wooden logs with their hands, the best sages obtained Rudrahood with their bodies by merely taking bath.

However, one vasistha Brahman, named Graparasar neither took the bath nor touched the wooden logs. He went on prolonged fasting and made his body decay. Rudra then spoke to him in a dream and advised him to obtain Rudrahood quickly by taking bath and touching the wooden logs. Gauraparasara persisted, ‘that you can be visible after the attainment of Rudrahood is a fact, ‘O father of the world! But my mind is not satisfied without the sight of the lord of the Gods. You have said that you would be visible in disguise in the abode( of the Naga).

The Brahman refuses to leave and continues fasting, Sankara replies: I have already provided them, my manifestation in the form of the wooden log. Merely by seeing me, they attained Rudrahood, O twice-Born! Now, due to your penance which is greater, I give you the desired boon. Ask for what you desire and Obtain Rudrahood.

The Brahman demands that Mahesvara should manifest in the form of a wooden log, to all the human beings, as it did to the sages. Mahesvara agrees and remarks, ‘O best among the twice-born, all those people who will see(the god) standing in the form of wood, (will see the gods) not always but only occasionally. With a desire to do favor to them, my gana-the Nandi in the form of wooden log shall always be visible to the human beings. And having seen (him) they would attain Rudrahood with their bodies. As I shall appear before men, so I shall obtain the name, Kapatesvara.

Alberuni too had heard of the Kapateshvara tirtha and its legend. He writes ‘ a pond called Kudaishashr(Kapatesvar) to the left of the source of the vitasta, in the middle of the month of Vaisakha, Mahadeva appears annually.’

AB-L-FAZL, Ain-I Akb, ii, p.358, mentions “in the village of Kotihar, a deep spring surrounded by stone temples. When its water decreases, an image of Mahadeva in Sandalwood appears.”

The sacred spring rises in a large circular tank which is enclosed by an ancient stone-wall and steps leading into the water. According to Kalhana’s account this enclosure was constructed, about a century before his own time, at the expense of the well-known king Bhoja of Malava.The latter is said to have taken a vow always to wash his face in the water of the Papasundana spring.

(From Rajatarangini)

Regulation of Vitasta (Jhelum) by Suyya

Kalhana writes in ‘Rajatarangini’ about the illustrious visionary Suyya- The Engineer .He lived during the King Avantivarman’s Rule and was in fact whole heatedly supported by the king in his endeavor. Kalhana has given in detail about this great Engineering Operation, which was carried out in his reign(Avantivarman)for the drainage of the valley as well as for irrigation.
The topographically interesting details of these operations which are connected with the name of Avantivarman’s skillful Engineer Suyya. The systematic regulation of the course of the vitasta , down to the rock-bound gorge where it leaves the valley, largely reduced the extent of the water-locked tracts along the banks of the river and the damage to the crops caused by floods. The construction of the new beds for the river at points threatened by the inundation-breaches was among the measures designed to effect the same object.The change thus made in the confluence of the vitasta and its most important tributary , the Sindhu, can still be clearly traced, thanks to Kalhana’s accurate topographical Data. It shows alike the large scale and the systematic technical basis of Suyya’s regulation. The result of the latter was a great increase of land available for cultivation , and increased protection against disastrous floods which in Kashmir have ever been the main cause of famine.
According to the account of the chronicler, Suyya supplemented these measures by equally important improvements in the system of irrigation which indispensable for the cultivation of Rice, the staple produce of Kashmir. The facilities thus secured for cultivation produced a remarkable reduction in the orice of rice, the cost of a Khari being alleged to have fallen from 200 Dinnaras to 36 Dinnaras in consequence.

It is only natural that the story of this great change in the material condition of the country which so closely affected the welfare of its inhabitants should have exercised popular imagination , already at the time and still more thereafter.We accordingly find the account of Suyya’s origin and his initial proceedings embellished with details which are manifestly legendary. But though the anecdotes to which we are treated, can have no foundation in historical fact, yet they are just such as would readily be accepted by contemporary popular tradition. Suyya’s memory is preserved to this day by the town of Suyyapura, the present Sopore-which was founded by him at the point where the vitasta since his regulation leaves the basin of the volur lake.

Small List of Kashmiri Pandits killed by Militants

This is the small list of kps murdered by muslim terrorists.

Sr. Name of the Victim Date of Killing

1 PRABHAVATI 14.03.1989

2 DINA NATH RAINA 15.08.1989

3 TIKA LAL TIPLOO 14.09.1989

4 SMT. SHEELA TICKOO 01.11.1989

5 NEEL KANT GANJOO 01.11.1989

6 PREM NATH BHAT 27.12.1989

7 M.L.BHAN 15.01.1990

8 P.K.KOTRU 19.01.1990

9 SATISH KR. TICKOO 22.01.1990

10 TEJ KRISHEN RAZDAN 12.02.1990

11 LASSA KOUL 13.02.1990

12 ANIL BHAN 16.02.1990

13 ASHOK QAZI 23.02.1990

14 NAVEEN SAPROO 27.02.1990

15 P.N. HANDOO 01.03.1990

16 JAGAR NATH 03.03.1990

17 NIRMALA RAINA 06.03.1990

18 KASHI NATH 06.03.1990

19 RATTAN LAL 10.03.1990

20 T.K.RAZDAN 15.03.1990

21 A.K.RAINA 19.03.1990

22 B.K.GANJOO 19.03.1990

23 GULSHAN LAL RAINA 19.03.1990

24 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 20.03.1990

25 GULSHAN LAL LAMBA 21.03.1990

26 P.L.FOTEADAR 22.03.1990

27 SOOM NATH TICKOO 23.03.1990

28 B.L.MISIRI 23.03.1990

29 TRILOKI NATH AMBARDAR 23.03.1990

30 BANSI LAL 24.03.1990

31 A.K.BAZAZ 26.03.1990

32 PREM NATH KOUL 05.04.1990

33 PREM NATH TICKOO 05.04.1990

34 K.K.KOUL 05.04.1990

35 RADHA KRISHAN 05.04.1990

36 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 06.04.1990

37 ASHOK KUMAR 06.04.1990

38 H.L.KHERA 06.04.1990

39 RAMEESH PEER 06.04.1990

40 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

41 KARI LAL 09.04.1990

42 MAKHAN LAL WANGANOO 10.04.1990

43 SARLA BHAT 19.04.1990

44 MAKHAN LAL 21.04.1990

45 SUSHEEL KR. KOTRU 23.04.1990

46 SUSHIL KR KOTRU 23.04.1990

47 NIRANJAN NATH 24.04.1990

48 BANSI LAL SAPRU 24.04.1990

49 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

50 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

51 RAVINDER KR. PANDIT 25.04.1990

52 KASHI RAM 25.04.1990

53 BUSHAN LAL 26.04.1990

54 DR.RAJ NATH 26.04.1990

55 BRIJ NATH 26.04.1990

56 RAJ NATH RAINA 26.04.1990

57 BANSI LAL 27/28.04.1990

58 BHARAT BHUSHAN 27/28.04.1990

59 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN BHAT 28.04.1990

60 GUSHI LAL 29.04.1990

61 M.L.PANDITA 29.04.1990

62 DILEEP KUMAR 30.04.1990

63 HEERA LAL KHAR 30.04.1990

64 DAWARIKA NATH 01.05.1990

65 SARWANANAD KOUL PREMI 01.05.1990

66 VIRENDER KUMAR 01.05.1990

67 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 01.05.1990

68 MAKHAN LAL THAPLOO 02.05.1990

69 AVTAR KRISHAN 02.05.1990

70 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 02.05.1990

71 PROF.K.L.GANJU 02/03.05.1990

72 SMT. PRANA GANJOO 02/03.05.1990

73 VINOD KR. CHATTA 03.05.1990

74 VINOD KUMAR 03.05.1990

75 DAYA KRISHN 03.05.1990

76 SURIEND CHAND 04.05.1990

77 MOHAN LAL BHAT 04.05.1990

78 RAMESH KR. RAINA 05.05.1990

79 SURINDER DHAR 05.05.1990

80 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

81 KUNDAN LAL GANJOO 07.05.1990

82 DOLLY 07.05.1990

83 RAMESH KR RAINA 07.05.1990

84 BIHARI LAL LABAROO 09.05.1990

85 RATTAN LAL 10.05.1990

86 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

87 SURINDER KUMAR 10.05.1990

88 MOTI LAL BHAT 10.05.1990

89 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

90 AMAR NATH BAGATI 11.05.1990

91 OMKAR NATH 11.05.1990

92 POSHKAR NATH 11.05.1990

93 MOHAN LAL 13.05.1990

94 INDERJEET 13.05.1990

95 VEER JI @VAID JI BHAT 13.05.1990

96 ASHOK KUMAR 13.05.1990

97 BUSHAN LAL 13.05.1990

98 DAYA KRISHEN DULLO 13.05.1990

99 MAM MOHAN SHARMA 15.05.1990

100 SAROOP NATH 15.05.1990

101 A.K.WAZIR 15.05.1990

102 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 16.05.1990

103 BUSHAN LAL 17.05.1990

104 SHAM LAL SHARMA 17.05.1990

105 CHUNI LAL 17.05.1990

106 SURESH KR. KISSU 17.05.1990

107 MANMOHAN BACHLOO 18.05.1990

108 JIYA LAL KAW 18.05.1990

109 MINOR 18.05.1990

110 DILEEP KUMAR 19.05.1990

111 MOTI LAL RAINA 20.05.1990

112 DILEEP JI 21.05.1990

113 PRATHIVI NATH HAKIM 21.05.1990

114 CHAMAN LAL PANDIT 22.05.1990

115 PREM NATH BHAT 23.05.1990

116 SHAMBU NATH 24.05.1990

117 BANSI LAL SHARMA 24.05.1990

118 PREM NATH BHAT 25.05.1990

119 SHANKER DASS 26.05.1990

120 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 28.05.1990

121 SEEMA ALIAS BABLI 28.05.1990

122 RAMESH KR RAINA 28.05.1990

123 MAHARAJ KRISHEN 30.05.1990

124 JAWAHIR LAL WANCHOO 30.05.1990

125 KRISHAN LAL WAGROO 31.05.1990

126 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 31.05.1990

127 AVTAR KRISHEN 31.05.1990

128 JAGAR NATH 31.05.1990

129 RAMESH KUMAR 01.06.1990

130 KANA YA LAL BHAT 01.06.1990

131 BADRI NATH 02.06.1990

132 DAMODHAR RAINA 02.06.1990

133 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 02.06.1990

134 DAMODAR SWAROOP RAINA 02.06.1990

135 SATISH LAL KALLA 03.06.1990

136 SHIBAN KRISHEN KULLA 03.06.1990

137 AFTAB RAM 04.06.1990

138 GOKAL NATH 04.06.1990

139 RADHA KRISHAN PATWARI 06.06.1990

140 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.06.1990

141 RAMESH KR. RAINA 07.06.1990

142 RAJ KR. JAILKHANI 07.06.1990

143 SHAM LAL 07.06.1990

144 RADHA KRISHAN 07.06.1990

145 SMT.GIRJA TICKOO 11.06.1990

146 INDER KUMAR 11.06.1990

147 KANAYA LAL 11.06.1990

148 SOOM NATH 11.06.1990

149 GIRJA KUMARI TICKOO 11.06.1990

150 ASHOK KR. PANDITA 12.06.1990

151 KANYA LAL 12.06.1990

152 TRILOKI NATH 12.06.1990

153 CHUNI LAL 13.06.1990

154 DAYARAM KOUL 13.06.1990

155 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

156 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

157 A.K.SAFAYA 15.06.1990

158 DAYARAM KOUL 15.06.1990

159 RAMCHAND 15.06.1990

160 SAROOP NATH 16.06.1990

161 GOPI CHAND 17.06.1990

162 BADRI NATH KOUL 18.06.1990

163 JAWAHIR LAL GANJOO 18.06.1990

164 SMT. PARANA GANJOO 18.06.1990

165 SMT.DURGA KOUL 18.06.1990

TEJ KRISHAN PANDIT 19.06.1990

166 RAJINDER KR. TICKOO 20.06.1990

167 SANJAY THUSOO 21.06.1990

168 SMT GIGARI 22.06.1990

169 BAL KRISHEN TATOO 22.06.1990

170 BALJEE 22.06.1990

171 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

172 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

173 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

174 M.L.BHAT 22/23.06.1990

175 ASHOK KUMAR 23.06.1990

176 PRATHAVI NATH TICKOO 23.06.1990

177 ASHWANI KUMAR 23.06.1990

178 ASHOK KR. KOTHA 24.06.1990

179 SOOM NATH 24.06.1990

180 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 24.06.1990

181 SOOM NATH KOUL 24.06.1990

182 BADRI NATH WATTAL 25.06.1990

183 SATISH KR RAINA 25.06.1990

184 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

185 SATISH KUMAR 26.06.1990

186 GOPAL NATH 26.06.1990

187 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

188 T.N.RAINA 26.06.1990

189 YOGESH KUMAR 26.06.1990

190 GOPI NATH RAINA 26.06.1990

191 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

192 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

193 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

194 SMT. BABLI 28.06.1990

195 SMT.ROOPAWATI 28.06.1990

196 VIVAK LABAROO @SHABAJEE 29.06.1990

197 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

198 PROF. NEEL KANT. RAINA 30.06.1990

199 RAJINDER 30.06.1990

200 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

201 TRILKOI NATH 01.07.1990

202 N.G.SADHU 01.07.1990

203 DINA NATH 01.07.1990

204 RAJ NATH DHAR 01.07.1990

205 SMT. GIRJA DHAR 01.07.1990

206 SMT. TEJA DHAR 01.07.1990

207 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN 02.07.1990

208 SMT. ARANDATTI 02.07.1990

209 MAKHAN LAL 03.07.1990

210 MOHAN LAL 03.07.1990

211 SATISH KUMAR 06.07.1990

212 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.07.1990

213 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

214 DINA NATH MUJOO 07.07.1990

215 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

216 SHIBAN KOUL 08.07.1990

217 GOURI SHANKER 09.07.1990

218 AVTAR KRISHAN 09.07.1990

219 INDER KRISHAN 10.07.1990

220 SHAMBU NATH 11.07.1990

221 INDER KUMAR 11.07.1990

222 NANAJI 11.07.1990

223 SHIBAN LAL KOUL 11.07.1990

224 JIWAN LAL 15.07.1990

225 BISHAMBAR NATH KOUL 15/16.07.1990

226 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 15/16.07.1990

227 VAID PRAKESH KOUL 16.07.1990

228 BRIJ NATH KOUL 16.07.1990

229 ANANAD NARAYAN 17.07.1990

230 CHAND RAM KHER 17.07.1990

231 DR. SONI 18.07.1990

232 BRIJ NATH KOUL 19.07.1990

233 JANKI NATH 20.07.1990

234 NATH JI 26.07.1990

235 VAID LAL 26.07.1990

236 JANKI NATH 26.07.1990

237 GOURI SHANKER 29.07.1990

238 ADARSH JEE 29.07.1990

239 JAI KRISHAN 02.08.1990

240 RAM NATH BHAT 06.08.1990

241 R.K.HANDOO 09.08.1990

242 SAROOP NARAYAN 10.08.1990

243 MANOJ KUMAR 10.08.1990

244 PRATHAVI NATH BALI 10.08.1990

245 VASUDEV PANDIT 11.08.1990

246 D.N.CHOEDHARY 11.08.1990

247 RASHANLAL CHOWDHARY 11.08.1990

248 VASUDEV PANDITA 11.08.1990

249 AUTAR KRISHEN PANDITA 12.08.1990

250 DARSHAN KOUL 15.08.1990

251 MASHER NATH 16.08.1990

252 RATTAN LAL RAINA 18.08.1990

253 SHANKER NATH TIKU 21.08.1990

254 BANSI LAL RAINA 28.08.1990

255 OMKAR NATH KOUL 29.08.1990

256 SHADI LAL BHAT 04.09.1990

257 PRATHVI NATH 05/06.09.1990

258 MAKHAN LAL 08.09.1990

259 HIDAY NATH 09.09.1990

260 GOURI SHANKER 10.09.1990

261 SMT.TRIKAJI 10.09.1990

262 TRILOKI NATH 11.09.1990

263 RAMESH KUMAR 12.09.1990

264 AVTAR KRISHEN 12/13.09.1990

265 DAWARIKA NATH 13.09.1990

266 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 14.09.1990

267 RATTAN LAL PANDITA 17.09.1990

268 PAIRAY LAL RAINA 23.09.1990

269 DURGA PRASAD 05.10.1990

270 D.P.KHAZANCHI 06.10.1990

271 JAGAR NATH 07.10.1990

272 ZIND LAL 07.10.1990

273 JAGAR NATH PANDITA 07.10.1990

274 POSHKAR NATH RAZDAN 12.10.1990

275 SMT. USHA JI 14.10.1990

276 AUSHA KOUL 14.10.1990

277 DR.SHIBAN JI KHIRDI 14.10.1990

278 RAJINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

279 SATUSH KOUL 14.10.1990

280 SMT. NEETA JI 14.10.1990

281 SMT.NANCY KOUL 14.10.1990

282 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 15.10.1990

283 MAKHAN LAL BHAT 17.10.1990

284 PREM NATH BHAT 17.10.1990

285 POSHKER NATH 18.10.1990

286 SMT. PINKI KOUL 09.11.1990

287 MOHAN LAL KOUL 19.11.1990

288 OMKAR NATN WALI 02.01.1991

289 BALDEV RAJ DUTTA 19.01.1991

290 MADAN MOHAN 11.06.1991

291 KASHI NATH KOUL 13.06.1991

292 NANAJEE 13.06.1991

293 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

294 MOHAN LAL MATTOO 01.07.1991

295 SMT. VIJAY BHAT 31.07.1991

296 SURINDER KUMAR 26.08.1991

297 MOHAN LAL 08.10.1991

298 RAMESH KUMAR 09.10.1991

299 POSHKAR NATH 12.10.1991

300 MEHESHER NATH 15.10.1991

301 SHAM LAL PANDITH 15.10.1991

302 KANHAYA LAL PESHIN 18.10.1991

303 KANAYA LAL 19.10.1991

304 JANKI NATH KOUL 14.12.1991

305 ARCHANA BRAROO 30.03.1992

306 SMT. BIMALA BRAROO 30.03.1992

307 SOHAN LAL BRAROO 30.03.1992

308 RATTAN LAL HALI 20.05.1992

309 DURA NATH RAFIZ 03.06.1992

310 CHAMAN LAL KOUL 11.10.1992

311 SOOM NATH RAINA 11.10.1992

312 H.N.WANCHOO 05.12.1992

313 SMT.ASHA PANDIT 29.12.1992

314 TEJ KRISHEN 12.02.1993

315 PREM NATH BHAT 06.06.1993

316 JAGAR NATH 06.07.1993

317 NEEL KANT LALA 25.07.1993

318 KANYA LAL DUDHA 14.08.1993

319 AVTAR KRISHEN 24.10.1993

320 PRADEEP KUMAR BHAT 28.01.1994

321 SANJAY KUMAR @CHAKO 10.05.1994

322 PIYAR LAL RAINA 13.07.1994

323 TEJ KRISHEN BHAT 03.12.1994

324 SONA RAM 25.07.1995

325 CHUNI LAL BHAT 12.05.1996

326 RAJ NATH 05.06.1996

327 AVTAR KRISHAN 21/22.03.1997

328 BUSHAN LAL BHAT 21/22.03.1997

329 DEELEEP BHAT 21/22.03.1997

330 PAIRAY LAL PANDIT 21/22.03.1997

331 SANJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

332 TRILOKI NATH 21/22.03.1997

333 VIJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

334 AKSHAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

335 BADRI NATH 25.01.1998

336 JYOTI 25.01.1998

337 KASHI NATH 25.01.1998

338 MEENAKSHI 25.01.1998

339 MOTI LAL BHAT 25.01.1998

340 RAKESH KUMAR 25.01.1998

341 SANJAY KR. BHAT 25.01.1998

342 SARIKA 25.01.1998

343 SARLA KUMARI 25.01.1998

344 SEEMA KUMARI 25.01.1998

345 SMT. CHOTI 25.01.1998

346 SMT. DULARI 25.01.1998

347 SMT. NEERU JI 25.01.1998

348 SUDARSHAN 25.01.1998

349 TRILOKI NATH 25.01.1998

350 VIJAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

351 VIKAS KUMAR 25.01.1998

352 VINOD KUMAR 25.01.1998

353 ASHOK KUMAR 04.02.2000

354 UNSHOO 04.02.2000

355 VEER JI 04.02.2000

356 BRIJ NATH BHAT 04.03.2000

357 SMT LAKHSHMI DEVI 21.12.2001

358 SMT. SONI 21.12.2001

359 AMIT KHER 24.03.2003

360 AVTAR KRISHAN 24.03.2003

361 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

362 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

363 JIGA KUMARI 24.03.2003

364 LASA KOUL 24.03.2003

365 LOK NATH 24.03.2003

366 MOHAN LAL 24.03.2003

367 MUNA 24.03.2003

368 PRETAM KRISHEN 24.03.2003

369 PRETAM KUMARI 24.03.2003

370 PRINCY KUMARI 24.03.2003

371 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

372 RAJANI 24.03.2003

373 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

374 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

375 RAJANI 24.03.2003

376 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

377 RAKESH KUMAR 24.03.2003

378 SMT SUMAN JI 24.03.2003

379 SMT. SOOMAVATI 24.03.2003

380 SMT.ASHA 24.03.2003

381 SURAJ 24.03.2003

382 TRILOKI NATH 24.03.2003

383 TEJ KRISHAN 03.12.2004.

384 O. N. MOTTA 29.07.1990

385 USHA KUMARI KOUL 14.10.1990

386 RATINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

387 Radha Krishen Koul 24.08.1990

and MANY MORE..they we killed in their home in offices on road where ever they wete found.And world was silentThis is the small list of kps murdered by muslim terrorists.

Sr. Name of the Victim Date of Killing

1 PRABHAVATI 14.03.1989

2 DINA NATH RAINA 15.08.1989

3 TIKA LAL TIPLOO 14.09.1989

4 SMT. SHEELA TICKOO 01.11.1989

5 NEEL KANT GANJOO 01.11.1989

6 PREM NATH BHAT 27.12.1989

7 M.L.BHAN 15.01.1990

8 P.K.KOTRU 19.01.1990

9 SATISH KR. TICKOO 22.01.1990

10 TEJ KRISHEN RAZDAN 12.02.1990

11 LASSA KOUL 13.02.1990

12 ANIL BHAN 16.02.1990

13 ASHOK QAZI 23.02.1990

14 NAVEEN SAPROO 27.02.1990

15 P.N. HANDOO 01.03.1990

16 JAGAR NATH 03.03.1990

17 NIRMALA RAINA 06.03.1990

18 KASHI NATH 06.03.1990

19 RATTAN LAL 10.03.1990

20 T.K.RAZDAN 15.03.1990

21 A.K.RAINA 19.03.1990

22 B.K.GANJOO 19.03.1990

23 GULSHAN LAL RAINA 19.03.1990

24 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 20.03.1990

25 GULSHAN LAL LAMBA 21.03.1990

26 P.L.FOTEADAR 22.03.1990

27 SOOM NATH TICKOO 23.03.1990

28 B.L.MISIRI 23.03.1990

29 TRILOKI NATH AMBARDAR 23.03.1990

30 BANSI LAL 24.03.1990

31 A.K.BAZAZ 26.03.1990

32 PREM NATH KOUL 05.04.1990

33 PREM NATH TICKOO 05.04.1990

34 K.K.KOUL 05.04.1990

35 RADHA KRISHAN 05.04.1990

36 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 06.04.1990

37 ASHOK KUMAR 06.04.1990

38 H.L.KHERA 06.04.1990

39 RAMEESH PEER 06.04.1990

40 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

41 KARI LAL 09.04.1990

42 MAKHAN LAL WANGANOO 10.04.1990

43 SARLA BHAT 19.04.1990

44 MAKHAN LAL 21.04.1990

45 SUSHEEL KR. KOTRU 23.04.1990

46 SUSHIL KR KOTRU 23.04.1990

47 NIRANJAN NATH 24.04.1990

48 BANSI LAL SAPRU 24.04.1990

49 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

50 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

51 RAVINDER KR. PANDIT 25.04.1990

52 KASHI RAM 25.04.1990

53 BUSHAN LAL 26.04.1990

54 DR.RAJ NATH 26.04.1990

55 BRIJ NATH 26.04.1990

56 RAJ NATH RAINA 26.04.1990

57 BANSI LAL 27/28.04.1990

58 BHARAT BHUSHAN 27/28.04.1990

59 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN BHAT 28.04.1990

60 GUSHI LAL 29.04.1990

61 M.L.PANDITA 29.04.1990

62 DILEEP KUMAR 30.04.1990

63 HEERA LAL KHAR 30.04.1990

64 DAWARIKA NATH 01.05.1990

65 SARWANANAD KOUL PREMI 01.05.1990

66 VIRENDER KUMAR 01.05.1990

67 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 01.05.1990

68 MAKHAN LAL THAPLOO 02.05.1990

69 AVTAR KRISHAN 02.05.1990

70 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 02.05.1990

71 PROF.K.L.GANJU 02/03.05.1990

72 SMT. PRANA GANJOO 02/03.05.1990

73 VINOD KR. CHATTA 03.05.1990

74 VINOD KUMAR 03.05.1990

75 DAYA KRISHN 03.05.1990

76 SURIEND CHAND 04.05.1990

77 MOHAN LAL BHAT 04.05.1990

78 RAMESH KR. RAINA 05.05.1990

79 SURINDER DHAR 05.05.1990

80 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

81 KUNDAN LAL GANJOO 07.05.1990

82 DOLLY 07.05.1990

83 RAMESH KR RAINA 07.05.1990

84 BIHARI LAL LABAROO 09.05.1990

85 RATTAN LAL 10.05.1990

86 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

87 SURINDER KUMAR 10.05.1990

88 MOTI LAL BHAT 10.05.1990

89 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

90 AMAR NATH BAGATI 11.05.1990

91 OMKAR NATH 11.05.1990

92 POSHKAR NATH 11.05.1990

93 MOHAN LAL 13.05.1990

94 INDERJEET 13.05.1990

95 VEER JI @VAID JI BHAT 13.05.1990

96 ASHOK KUMAR 13.05.1990

97 BUSHAN LAL 13.05.1990

98 DAYA KRISHEN DULLO 13.05.1990

99 MAM MOHAN SHARMA 15.05.1990

100 SAROOP NATH 15.05.1990

101 A.K.WAZIR 15.05.1990

102 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 16.05.1990

103 BUSHAN LAL 17.05.1990

104 SHAM LAL SHARMA 17.05.1990

105 CHUNI LAL 17.05.1990

106 SURESH KR. KISSU 17.05.1990

107 MANMOHAN BACHLOO 18.05.1990

108 JIYA LAL KAW 18.05.1990

109 MINOR 18.05.1990

110 DILEEP KUMAR 19.05.1990

111 MOTI LAL RAINA 20.05.1990

112 DILEEP JI 21.05.1990

113 PRATHIVI NATH HAKIM 21.05.1990

114 CHAMAN LAL PANDIT 22.05.1990

115 PREM NATH BHAT 23.05.1990

116 SHAMBU NATH 24.05.1990

117 BANSI LAL SHARMA 24.05.1990

118 PREM NATH BHAT 25.05.1990

119 SHANKER DASS 26.05.1990

120 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 28.05.1990

121 SEEMA ALIAS BABLI 28.05.1990

122 RAMESH KR RAINA 28.05.1990

123 MAHARAJ KRISHEN 30.05.1990

124 JAWAHIR LAL WANCHOO 30.05.1990

125 KRISHAN LAL WAGROO 31.05.1990

126 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 31.05.1990

127 AVTAR KRISHEN 31.05.1990

128 JAGAR NATH 31.05.1990

129 RAMESH KUMAR 01.06.1990

130 KANA YA LAL BHAT 01.06.1990

131 BADRI NATH 02.06.1990

132 DAMODHAR RAINA 02.06.1990

133 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 02.06.1990

134 DAMODAR SWAROOP RAINA 02.06.1990

135 SATISH LAL KALLA 03.06.1990

136 SHIBAN KRISHEN KULLA 03.06.1990

137 AFTAB RAM 04.06.1990

138 GOKAL NATH 04.06.1990

139 RADHA KRISHAN PATWARI 06.06.1990

140 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.06.1990

141 RAMESH KR. RAINA 07.06.1990

142 RAJ KR. JAILKHANI 07.06.1990

143 SHAM LAL 07.06.1990

144 RADHA KRISHAN 07.06.1990

145 SMT.GIRJA TICKOO 11.06.1990

146 INDER KUMAR 11.06.1990

147 KANAYA LAL 11.06.1990

148 SOOM NATH 11.06.1990

149 GIRJA KUMARI TICKOO 11.06.1990

150 ASHOK KR. PANDITA 12.06.1990

151 KANYA LAL 12.06.1990

152 TRILOKI NATH 12.06.1990

153 CHUNI LAL 13.06.1990

154 DAYARAM KOUL 13.06.1990

155 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

156 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

157 A.K.SAFAYA 15.06.1990

158 DAYARAM KOUL 15.06.1990

159 RAMCHAND 15.06.1990

160 SAROOP NATH 16.06.1990

161 GOPI CHAND 17.06.1990

162 BADRI NATH KOUL 18.06.1990

163 JAWAHIR LAL GANJOO 18.06.1990

164 SMT. PARANA GANJOO 18.06.1990

165 SMT.DURGA KOUL 18.06.1990

TEJ KRISHAN PANDIT 19.06.1990

166 RAJINDER KR. TICKOO 20.06.1990

167 SANJAY THUSOO 21.06.1990

168 SMT GIGARI 22.06.1990

169 BAL KRISHEN TATOO 22.06.1990

170 BALJEE 22.06.1990

171 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

172 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

173 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

174 M.L.BHAT 22/23.06.1990

175 ASHOK KUMAR 23.06.1990

176 PRATHAVI NATH TICKOO 23.06.1990

177 ASHWANI KUMAR 23.06.1990

178 ASHOK KR. KOTHA 24.06.1990

179 SOOM NATH 24.06.1990

180 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 24.06.1990

181 SOOM NATH KOUL 24.06.1990

182 BADRI NATH WATTAL 25.06.1990

183 SATISH KR RAINA 25.06.1990

184 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

185 SATISH KUMAR 26.06.1990

186 GOPAL NATH 26.06.1990

187 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

188 T.N.RAINA 26.06.1990

189 YOGESH KUMAR 26.06.1990

190 GOPI NATH RAINA 26.06.1990

191 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

192 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

193 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

194 SMT. BABLI 28.06.1990

195 SMT.ROOPAWATI 28.06.1990

196 VIVAK LABAROO @SHABAJEE 29.06.1990

197 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

198 PROF. NEEL KANT. RAINA 30.06.1990

199 RAJINDER 30.06.1990

200 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

201 TRILKOI NATH 01.07.1990

202 N.G.SADHU 01.07.1990

203 DINA NATH 01.07.1990

204 RAJ NATH DHAR 01.07.1990

205 SMT. GIRJA DHAR 01.07.1990

206 SMT. TEJA DHAR 01.07.1990

207 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN 02.07.1990

208 SMT. ARANDATTI 02.07.1990

209 MAKHAN LAL 03.07.1990

210 MOHAN LAL 03.07.1990

211 SATISH KUMAR 06.07.1990

212 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.07.1990

213 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

214 DINA NATH MUJOO 07.07.1990

215 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

216 SHIBAN KOUL 08.07.1990

217 GOURI SHANKER 09.07.1990

218 AVTAR KRISHAN 09.07.1990

219 INDER KRISHAN 10.07.1990

220 SHAMBU NATH 11.07.1990

221 INDER KUMAR 11.07.1990

222 NANAJI 11.07.1990

223 SHIBAN LAL KOUL 11.07.1990

224 JIWAN LAL 15.07.1990

225 BISHAMBAR NATH KOUL 15/16.07.1990

226 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 15/16.07.1990

227 VAID PRAKESH KOUL 16.07.1990

228 BRIJ NATH KOUL 16.07.1990

229 ANANAD NARAYAN 17.07.1990

230 CHAND RAM KHER 17.07.1990

231 DR. SONI 18.07.1990

232 BRIJ NATH KOUL 19.07.1990

233 JANKI NATH 20.07.1990

234 NATH JI 26.07.1990

235 VAID LAL 26.07.1990

236 JANKI NATH 26.07.1990

237 GOURI SHANKER 29.07.1990

238 ADARSH JEE 29.07.1990

239 JAI KRISHAN 02.08.1990

240 RAM NATH BHAT 06.08.1990

241 R.K.HANDOO 09.08.1990

242 SAROOP NARAYAN 10.08.1990

243 MANOJ KUMAR 10.08.1990

244 PRATHAVI NATH BALI 10.08.1990

245 VASUDEV PANDIT 11.08.1990

246 D.N.CHOEDHARY 11.08.1990

247 RASHANLAL CHOWDHARY 11.08.1990

248 VASUDEV PANDITA 11.08.1990

249 AUTAR KRISHEN PANDITA 12.08.1990

250 DARSHAN KOUL 15.08.1990

251 MASHER NATH 16.08.1990

252 RATTAN LAL RAINA 18.08.1990

253 SHANKER NATH TIKU 21.08.1990

254 BANSI LAL RAINA 28.08.1990

255 OMKAR NATH KOUL 29.08.1990

256 SHADI LAL BHAT 04.09.1990

257 PRATHVI NATH 05/06.09.1990

258 MAKHAN LAL 08.09.1990

259 HIDAY NATH 09.09.1990

260 GOURI SHANKER 10.09.1990

261 SMT.TRIKAJI 10.09.1990

262 TRILOKI NATH 11.09.1990

263 RAMESH KUMAR 12.09.1990

264 AVTAR KRISHEN 12/13.09.1990

265 DAWARIKA NATH 13.09.1990

266 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 14.09.1990

267 RATTAN LAL PANDITA 17.09.1990

268 PAIRAY LAL RAINA 23.09.1990

269 DURGA PRASAD 05.10.1990

270 D.P.KHAZANCHI 06.10.1990

271 JAGAR NATH 07.10.1990

272 ZIND LAL 07.10.1990

273 JAGAR NATH PANDITA 07.10.1990

274 POSHKAR NATH RAZDAN 12.10.1990

275 SMT. USHA JI 14.10.1990

276 AUSHA KOUL 14.10.1990

277 DR.SHIBAN JI KHIRDI 14.10.1990

278 RAJINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

279 SATUSH KOUL 14.10.1990

280 SMT. NEETA JI 14.10.1990

281 SMT.NANCY KOUL 14.10.1990

282 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 15.10.1990

283 MAKHAN LAL BHAT 17.10.1990

284 PREM NATH BHAT 17.10.1990

285 POSHKER NATH 18.10.1990

286 SMT. PINKI KOUL 09.11.1990

287 MOHAN LAL KOUL 19.11.1990

288 OMKAR NATN WALI 02.01.1991

289 BALDEV RAJ DUTTA 19.01.1991

290 MADAN MOHAN 11.06.1991

291 KASHI NATH KOUL 13.06.1991

292 NANAJEE 13.06.1991

293 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

294 MOHAN LAL MATTOO 01.07.1991

295 SMT. VIJAY BHAT 31.07.1991

296 SURINDER KUMAR 26.08.1991

297 MOHAN LAL 08.10.1991

298 RAMESH KUMAR 09.10.1991

299 POSHKAR NATH 12.10.1991

300 MEHESHER NATH 15.10.1991

301 SHAM LAL PANDITH 15.10.1991

302 KANHAYA LAL PESHIN 18.10.1991

303 KANAYA LAL 19.10.1991

304 JANKI NATH KOUL 14.12.1991

305 ARCHANA BRAROO 30.03.1992

306 SMT. BIMALA BRAROO 30.03.1992

307 SOHAN LAL BRAROO 30.03.1992

308 RATTAN LAL HALI 20.05.1992

309 DURA NATH RAFIZ 03.06.1992

310 CHAMAN LAL KOUL 11.10.1992

311 SOOM NATH RAINA 11.10.1992

312 H.N.WANCHOO 05.12.1992

313 SMT.ASHA PANDIT 29.12.1992

314 TEJ KRISHEN 12.02.1993

315 PREM NATH BHAT 06.06.1993

316 JAGAR NATH 06.07.1993

317 NEEL KANT LALA 25.07.1993

318 KANYA LAL DUDHA 14.08.1993

319 AVTAR KRISHEN 24.10.1993

320 PRADEEP KUMAR BHAT 28.01.1994

321 SANJAY KUMAR @CHAKO 10.05.1994

322 PIYAR LAL RAINA 13.07.1994

323 TEJ KRISHEN BHAT 03.12.1994

324 SONA RAM 25.07.1995

325 CHUNI LAL BHAT 12.05.1996

326 RAJ NATH 05.06.1996

327 AVTAR KRISHAN 21/22.03.1997

328 BUSHAN LAL BHAT 21/22.03.1997

329 DEELEEP BHAT 21/22.03.1997

330 PAIRAY LAL PANDIT 21/22.03.1997

331 SANJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

332 TRILOKI NATH 21/22.03.1997

333 VIJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

334 AKSHAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

335 BADRI NATH 25.01.1998

336 JYOTI 25.01.1998

337 KASHI NATH 25.01.1998

338 MEENAKSHI 25.01.1998

339 MOTI LAL BHAT 25.01.1998

340 RAKESH KUMAR 25.01.1998

341 SANJAY KR. BHAT 25.01.1998

342 SARIKA 25.01.1998

343 SARLA KUMARI 25.01.1998

344 SEEMA KUMARI 25.01.1998

345 SMT. CHOTI 25.01.1998

346 SMT. DULARI 25.01.1998

347 SMT. NEERU JI 25.01.1998

348 SUDARSHAN 25.01.1998

349 TRILOKI NATH 25.01.1998

350 VIJAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

351 VIKAS KUMAR 25.01.1998

352 VINOD KUMAR 25.01.1998

353 ASHOK KUMAR 04.02.2000

354 UNSHOO 04.02.2000

355 VEER JI 04.02.2000

356 BRIJ NATH BHAT 04.03.2000

357 SMT LAKHSHMI DEVI 21.12.2001

358 SMT. SONI 21.12.2001

359 AMIT KHER 24.03.2003

360 AVTAR KRISHAN 24.03.2003

361 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

362 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

363 JIGA KUMARI 24.03.2003

364 LASA KOUL 24.03.2003

365 LOK NATH 24.03.2003

366 MOHAN LAL 24.03.2003

367 MUNA 24.03.2003

368 PRETAM KRISHEN 24.03.2003

369 PRETAM KUMARI 24.03.2003

370 PRINCY KUMARI 24.03.2003

371 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

372 RAJANI 24.03.2003

373 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

374 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

375 RAJANI 24.03.2003

376 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

377 RAKESH KUMAR 24.03.2003

378 SMT SUMAN JI 24.03.2003

379 SMT. SOOMAVATI 24.03.2003

380 SMT.ASHA 24.03.2003

381 SURAJ 24.03.2003

382 TRILOKI NATH 24.03.2003

383 TEJ KRISHAN 03.12.2004.

384 O. N. MOTTA 29.07.1990

385 USHA KUMARI KOUL 14.10.1990

386 RATINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

387 Radha Krishen Koul 24.08.1990

and MANY MORE..they we killed in their home in offices on road where ever they were found.And world was silent.

( This is a post I found on whatsup)

Scenes from the 3 Decades of Kashmiri Pandits

(3 Decades of Kps)

Year1989-90

Dulari-The Seventy year old Matriarch , was standing in the middle of her Garden. Not a leaf of Grass was left in her frost-bitten-lawn. It was the peak of winter. She gave a cursory look around and strolled slowly , occasionally touching some of the dried up plants . She stopped near the Rose shrub and began to inspect the marigold plant, she has sown last summer just adjacent to it.

‘The marigold plant has dried up completely , so has this The Rose Bush’, She thought gloomily.

‘These winters eat up everything. I really wish the summers come soon.’ She looked upwards to the Post –Noon- Sun . Even though it was a bright shimmering sunny day, Nevertheless, The Sun too seemed to shiver.

After inspecting her Garden, she goes inside. It is around 1 Pm and time for Lunch. She washes her hands and sits in her Extended Kitchen- That basically serves as a Dining area for her family. She calls her daughter-in-law Phoolaji.

‘Hayayi Phoolaji, Battae sharei’ (Phoolaji serve the lunch)

It was the end of the year 1989.The Terrorists had become Blatantly Brazen after the kidnapping of Rubaiyya Syed. The Muslim neighbors too in hushed tones could be heard talking about, soon-to-get ‘Azadi’ . The Blanket curfew in the valley had forced all the family members of Dulari to stay indoors. Her family as well as Kashmiri Pandits neighbors too talked about the prevailing political circumstances that was filled with uncertainty. Yet, No one had imagined that a majority of Kashmiri Pandits will have to flee Kashmir within a month!

The Macabre dance of Death unleashed by the AK-47 laden Terrorists on KP’s had started and were targeting minority Hindus with impunity,

And then came the night of 19 Jan 1990-That changed forever the history of Kashmiri Pandits! The Kp’s were fleeing Kashmir in hordes. Dulari was no exception. She too left Kashmir as did her neighbors and relatives.
Future looks uncertain in Kashmir.

Year-2000-01

Dulari is now surrounded by new neighbors of Pan-India ethnicity in Faridabad . All these years, she has managed to speak her own version of Hindi. She uses a lot of Gesticulations in her conversations with neighbours as Kashmiri words pops up now and then unintentionally from her Mouth.

Dulari along with her Family had shifted to Faridabad in late 1995. Her elder Son has bought a House in Faridabad. It is built on a 100 sq yard plot. The front as well as the back yard is cemented . She is Old but still hard working and has lost no love for Gardening. She has secured and fenced a small patch of land may be 100 sq feet bordering the front side of her house. She religiously looks after that small garden. She has also sown with love the famous ‘Haak’ (collard greens) of Kashmiris in that lawn.

It is the month of March. She is inspecting her kitchen garden. Not much is there. Just one gaze is enough to tell about the health of her green friends. She opens the make-Shift gate of her garden. She squats near the marigold Plant and touches the flower.
‘Dear, If we would have been in Kashmir, I would have surrounded you with many more flowers and attended you better’. She was silently conveying her feelings to the flower.

‘Soon the marigold will be gone and so will be Haakh’ . These Harsh summers don’t spare anything’. She whispered .

‘Alas ! Kashmir was so beautiful!’ she sighed.

She does not have the same vigor, She once had in Kashmir. She feels the heat of the March Sun and slowly walks inside .

‘Hayyeyi Phoolaji Batta shaer’ (serve the lunch) – She orders her.

It has been 10 years now since KPs were forced into exile. Future in Kashmir still holds uncertain for them. She and her family are amongst the Lucky ones, who didn’t had to live in the dirty, unhygienic tattered tents of the refugee Camps-where still many of the community members were languishing .

Year-2018-19

Phoolaji-Her Daughter-in-law has become the new Matriarch since Dularis Death 12 years back.They now live in an apartment in Mumbai. After the death of her Mother-in-law; Phoolaji too has developed some love for Gardening.

In the balcony of her Flat, she has sown some saplings of Marigold as well as ‘Tulasi’ (Basil). Whenever, she waters or de-weeds the plants, The face of Dulari flashes in front of her mind. By planting and looking after the potted-Plants, she gets a strange sense of satisfaction. It is as if the soul of Dulari is watching her and is bestowing her with blessings.

She is standing in her Balcony. The Black clouds are moving fast as if they are on a mission! Needless to say, The infamous monsoons of the Mumbai have already arrived . Now and then the sky is roaring and it seems , it is going to pour too. To save the plants from being flooded by the downpours; Phoolaji shifts the pots to that area of the balcony, where they will be safe and Dry.

As soon as she had shifted the pots to a safer Dry place, The rains start.

‘Madamji, please come inside. The lunch is ready.’ Her maid shouts from the Kitchen.

She walks slowly towards the Dining area of her Flat and sits on the dining chair. She is served food by her maid. Today her maid has made ‘Haakh’. She is about to eat, when the familiar thought crosses her mind, yet once again.

‘The taste of Haakh was divine at Kashmir ! It would have been much more fun and happiness, had we been living at Kashmir !

But, Alas! Mahadev(God) had different plans. The medley of thoughts and emotions was disturbing somewhere in her Heart and Mind.

Soon after, the aroma of the food diverted her mind and brought her to her present at Mumbai. She takes the morsel of rice mixed with Haakh .

She can not forget that It has been 29 years and The situation for KPs in the valley has not changed a bit yet. To forget about the past, she switches on the TV , browses the channels to watch her favourite serial. While browsing, her eye catches the fleeting headline in one of the News channels. She stops at that Channel. The focus of the news is Kashmir again. The newsreader announces about the clashes between the protestors and the security forces. She again changes the channel and finally stops at a “Bhakti” (Devotional) channel.

Phoolaji is carrying forward the legacy,Customs and rituals left behind by her Late Mother-in-law.She has immortalised ‘Dulari’ by keeping her Photograph at the same pedestal as that of Devis and Devtaas in their small in-house temple.In the mornings and sometimes in the evenings too , incense sticks or Dhoop is gyrated reverentially around her photo too; along with the idols and photos of all major Devis and Devtaas to invoke their blessings!

The Show of life Continues …..

Samavar-The Heritage Tea Brewer of Kashmir

Samavar – the monarch tea brewer is perhaps the most distinguishable traditional utensil of Kashmir and is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural ambience of the valley. Enjoying enormous popularity, it is indispensable and central to every day Kashmiri life with the tea prepared in it being an inseparable part of the warm-hearted Kashmiri hospitality. Its overarching standing in Kashmiri culture has remained undisputed and unchallenged over the years despite the inflow of numerous contemporary appliances of similar nature in the market.

Samavar – Socio-cultural Significance

Samavar has carved out a proverbial niche for itself amongst the Kashmiri tea connoisseurs and steals the limelight at our every socio-cultural function. Its arrival and presence imparts an intimate touch of social warmth and cheer to every festive occasion. It also serves a deep societal purpose as it provides contextual relevance to our native conventions and time tested traditions. Its predominant presence is seen daily at breakfast and evening times in every Kashmiri household even now. Tea time is a wonderful family custom of Kashmir handed down to posterity by practice when all the family members assemble around the legendary Samavar to enjoy sizzling Kahwa cups. People relish endless chats, gossips and unconstrained talks over countless cups of tea prepared in it. Samavar by its utility also promotes family togetherness, emotional closeness and social cohesion.

The Samavar also enjoys a privileged position in the occupational part of Kashmiri life holding prominence during paddy cultivation, farming and fruit gathering activities. It also adds a vintage touch to celebrations, excursions and congregational gatherings. Samavar also adds radiance to the high octane atmosphere of the wedding functions of Kashmiri Pandits as well as Kashmiri Muslims. It acts as a comfort utensil as the tea brewed in it provides the required warmth to beat the bitter winter of Kashmir. The camaraderie with it is not broken even during despairing times and moments of gloom amongst the Muslims as it is used for brewing and providing Kahwa and Noon Chai (salted tea) to the callers during Fatehkhani on Chauhrum and Jumah Fateh.

Samavar is also integral to our social cultural expression. The arrival of the spring season with the bursting of almond flowers at Badamwari, Srinagar is incomplete without its presence. It also occupies a place of pride during social customs. The newly wed Kashmiri Pandit bride is required to serve tea brewed in the Samavar to the family members at the In-laws’ house in consonance with an age-old social ritual. The custom is known as ‘Chai Phirin’.

The Journey of Samavar

Samavar was introduced in Kashmir as an outcome of the Kashmiri association with the age old trade routes in the medieval times. The name Samavar is derived from the Russian word – ‘Samover’ and translates to ‘self-boiler’ or ‘self-brew’ in english. The innovative remodelling and improvisation that the Russian Samover received at the hands of Kashmiri artisans has resulted in the emergence of its exotic design and form.

Samavar enjoys cross-border acceptance and acknowledgement as it is closely linked with many cultures across the borders. Apart from Kashmir, it enjoys phenomenal popularity in Russia, Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Central Europe, South-east Europe, Africa, Morocco and the Middle East through its resembling counterparts. The lookalike utensil has diverse shapes, designs and outlines varying from place to place and may be cylindrical, spherical or barrelled in appearance and made from either plain iron, copper, polished brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) or bronze. The Russian Samover comprises of the main body, base, central chimney, faucet, cover, handle, crown ring and the steam vent key. The traditional Samover of earlier times used coal and charcoal for heating and brewing purpose while the present day ones are driven by electricity.

From Russia, the Samover made its entry into Iran about two centuries back as ‘Samevar’ in the Persian language. The Iranian Samevar’ employs Persian art motifs in its designs and outlines. The city of Borujerd located in Iran is one of the prime centres of its production where they are mostly handmade. Likewise, its lookalike kin, the Turkish Samovar is a metal container traditionally used to heat water and brew tea.

Samavar- a specimen of Kashmiri craftsmanship

The Samavar is an all-time favourite domestic utensil in the entire valley of Kashmir. It is one of the finest examples of the splendid art or craftsmanship and is known for its superb quality and distinct design. There are essentially two types of Kashmiri Samavars, the Qandhkari Samavars and the plain Samovars. The Qandhkari Samavars are made from copper and are exclusively used by the Muslims. In contrast, the plain Samavars are crafted from brass and are used by the Kashmiri Pandits. However, the stylish handles of both the types are made from brass. In earlier times, another type of Samavar was in vogue among the Kashmiri Pandits. It was known as the Panjaeb Samavar. Unlike the usual Samavars, it was uniformly globular in shape right from the crest to the base with a latticed lower part.

The Qandhkari Samavar has its entire outer surface carved with intricate floral and Chinar leaf motifs or geometric designs. Both its outer and inner surfaces are nickle plated, which is locally known as ‘Kalai’. In contrast, the plain Samavar is devoid of any design. Only its inner side is nickle plated which gives the surface a smooth finish and shine. The size of a Samavar depends upon its capacity to hold the number of tea cups. The Samavar used by the Muslims is usually bigger in size as compared to the one used by Kashmiri Pandits. It is sold by weight and its cost is related to its water holding capacity and size. The artisan who crafts the Samavar is known as ‘Thanthur’ in local parlance, whereas the designer who creates decorative carvings and patterns on its outer side is called ‘Naqash’. In Srinagar, the biggest and the most reputed market of its production is located at Gadde Bazar, Zaina Kadal, in downtown Srinagar. In addition to it, the spring town of Mattan in Anantnag, the village Nehama in Pulwama district and the hamlet of Wanmpora in central district of Budgam are known for their high grade and outstanding quality of Samavars. The handmade peg bottomed bronze tea cups, locally called as ‘Kenz Khose’ made at these places are prized for their high quality.

The Samavar is divisible in distinct parts. The middle segment is known as ‘Yaed’ or ‘Paytae’ in Kashmiri. It is the principal part of the Samavar. The lower most base is called as ‘Taelvather’ or simply as ‘chouk’. The portion above it is finely latticed which facilitates the passage of air needed for the charcoal to burn and glow. It is known as ‘Poung’. The topmost small circular lid is called as ‘Lokut Thanda’. It has a pointed knob at the centre known as the ‘Kalla’. This lid acts as the cover over the tubular chimney to extinguish the hot charcoals by cutting the air supply when needed. Beneath it is a bigger spherical lid known as ‘Boud Thanda’. Both of them are joined by a movable hinge which carries the name ‘Machil’. A tubular iron chimney runs vertically midway upto the base of the Samavar, which holds the hot embers. An extended curved part which has a beak shaped outlet at its upper end is joined at the outer surface of the Samavar. The arched part is known as ‘Nai’ while the beak shaped outlet through which tea is poured is known as ‘Hi’. It has a small hinged flap called as ‘Zev’ which regulates the flow of tea. The upper circular rim of the Samavar is known as ‘Kaaen’. An S shaped stylish handle is attached to the side opposite to Nai’ for holding the Samavar. It is known as ‘Thup’. Green tea, sugar, cardamom (elaichi), black cinnamon (dalchini), cloves (loung), black pepper (kali mirch) and crushed almonds are added to the water poured in the Samavar. The evenly distributed heat generated in the central chimney gives a conspicuous taste and a distinct flavour to Kahwa prepared in the Samavar. Both the kenz khous and flat bottomed khous are essential accessories of the Samavar.

Samavar – Preserving our culture

The heritage tea brewer- Samavar has also made its entry into the folkloric narrative of Kashmir. It figures both in the riddles and the famed folk form of singing – Wanwun. The riddles associated with Samavar run as “Aend Aend Aab, Munjbagh Naer” which means “having water outside with the blaze in the middle” and “Su kus janawar chu yas kalus paeth naer vuhaan tae tountae kin travaan ruth” which means “the animal that has an inflamed glow at the crest with its sprout pouring out reddish fluid”.

The Samavar is also praised in the traditional Wanwun singing at Kashmiri wedding functions. Some of the songs that find a mention of it are:
“Samavarus teungul treav, vah vah maam touthai aev” which means “put embers in the Samavar and keep it ready to welcome the esteemed maternal uncle”

“Aalae tae badam traav Samavarus vuch Sumcharus guil phoulnai” which means “put cardamom and almonds in the Samavar; it will heighten the bond of nearness”

“Roup sundh khous tae souna Samavarae, vuch chai kya mazadaar” which means “Have tea from the Silver crafted khous and golden Samavar and enjoy the unique flavour”

Kashmiris irrespective of their religious affiliation continue to have an unshakeable allegiance with the Samavar. The fast paced lifestyle and the advent of modernization has neither diminished its stature nor lessened its relevance. The Kashmiri Pandits have unquestionable adoration for this priceless possession that reminds them of their socio cultural roots in the valley. They have unwaveringly stayed loyal to it even in their time of exile. It continues to be the hallmark utensil at their socio-cultural functions as its presence till today amplifies the festive cheer. Needless to say, that it is imperative upon us to preserve this rich legacy of the Samavar so that it is not relegated to obscurity and lost in the pages of history.

By Upender Ambardar

Sancha Vidhya – A glorious gift of to Himachal Pradesh

In the times bygone, Kashmir excelled in many spheres of art, literature and culture, in which it achieved great heights. The cross cultural-religious strands that stretched between Kashmir and present day Himachal Pradesh successfully withstood the centuries old time-warp and refused to fade-away into oblivion. Apart from the natural brilliance of the landscapes, both the states share a deep rooted faith of the people in the time tested traditions, belief systems and ancient wisdom, which are enshrined in their holy scriptures. They form an integral part of our common heritage. The ancient Sancha scripture of Himachal Pradesh is an illustrious example of the same. It is a combination of Jyotish and Tantric knowledge. Even today, in the present scientific age, this ancient priceless knowledge is quite popular in Shimla, Sirmour and Solan areas of Himachal Pradesh. The ‘Sancha Granth’ is believed to have travelled to Himachal Pradesh from Kashmir hundreds of years back. The present day custodians of this ancient legacy, who are natives of Himachal Pradesh are believed to be the descendants of Kashmiri Panndits. The ‘Sancha’ treatise is a unique combination of ‘Mantra (sacred incantations), ‘Yantra’ (hallowed implements) and ‘Tantra’ (mystical hymns or invocations). The scripts of Sancha treatise are known by the names of ‘Bhatakshri’ or ‘Pabuchi’, which are Himachali variations of ‘Sharda’, the ancient script of Kashmir. In earlier times, the said script was also known as ‘Takri’.

In Himachal Pradesh, in addition to ‘Bhatakshri’ and ‘Pabuchi’, the ancient ‘Takri’ dialect has survived in many resembling forms like ‘Chambyali’, ‘Kalluvi’ Mandyali’ and ‘Sirmouri’ etc., which are the present day spoken dialects of Chamba, Kallu, Mandi and Sirmour areas of Himachal Pradesh. In earlier times, the scholarly and learned Himachali Brahmans were known as ‘Pabuch’ due to their demonstrative grip and hold over the ancient ‘Sancha’ knowledge. The ‘Sancha’ growth deals with a wide range of topics ranging from necromancy, black magic, witchcraft, occult effects and negative influences of evil spirits besides demonology. The ‘Sancha’ text offers solutions and remedies to the persons who are troubled by the negative influences of the above. In addition to it, all those persons, who are saddled by anxieties and worries arising out of afflictions by various ailments can find health assuring remedies by consulting ‘Sancha’ system. The ‘Sancha’ treatise also guarantees a triumph over one’s ‘hidden’ enemies by recitation of certain ‘mantras’ i.e. secret incantations.
Its help is also sought in adopting a religious recourse to the matters connected with almost all the Hindu Sanskars right from birth to death. In addition to it, ‘Sancha’ knowledge also aids in the recovery of stolen items by giving clues and hints about the identity of the thief, the time of the occurrence of the theft and number of persons involved in the act. An accurate and exact knowledge of the auspicious timing or ‘Hora’ is also possible by consulting ‘Sancha’ text. The word ‘Sancha’ owes it’s origin to the Sanskrit word ‘Sanch’ or ‘Sanchai’, which means a repository or a compilation. The Brahmans well-versed with the ‘Sancha’ knowledge are called ‘Pabuch’ or ‘Baat’. In addition to ‘Pabuchi’ or ‘Bhatakshri’ dialects, the ‘Sancha’ texts are also found in ‘Chandvani’, ‘Pandvani’ and ‘Butakhshri’ dialects. The script employed by the Brahmans of the ‘Panda’ sect is called ‘Pandvani’, while as the inscription used by the Brahmans of the ‘Bhat’ sect is known by the name of ‘Bhatakshri’. According to a legend, an ancient ruler of the erstwhile Sirmour Kingdom came under the spell of a curse by a female dancer. As a consequence, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Sirmour was completely submerged under water and the royalty became kingless. Depressed by the loss of entire royal clan and to ensure a new heir to the Sirmour throne, two ministers of the Kingdom namely Roymoan and Roy Gopal are said to have travelled all the way from Sirmour to Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir in the eleventh century A.D. The two Sirmour ministers are believed to have requested the then Kashmir King to send a Kashmiri Prince, who could take charge of the Sirmour Kingdom.

According to the oral legend, out of the two queens of the then Kashmiri King, one had an adopted son, while the second one named Sumitra was in a family way at that time. In pursuance of the then prevalent bestowal of alms custom, the King of Kashmir agreed to send his pregnant queen in the form of ‘Shaya Daan’ to the princely state of Sirmour. In furtherance of it and to facilitate the subsequent coronation of the Kashmiri Prince as a King of Sirmour, the queen Sumitra of Kashmir went to Sirmour. She was accompanied by a host of Rishis, saints, learned Brahmans, bards, artists and ministrels, in addition to numerous footmen and domestics. The accompanying Kashmiri Pandits are said to have carried with them their prized possession the ‘Sancha’ knowledge system. In the historical documents of Himachal, this notable event is recorded in the following lines “Loia Aana Mangtoo, Purohit Sath Loia Aana Raoy Baat Loia Aana Vikram Samvat Saat thi todi 1152 Mahina Magh.” It fully affirms and supports the historical fact that the carriers of the ‘Sancha’ treatise or knowledge to Himachal Pradesh were none other than the Kashmiri Pandits. Corresponding to the above Vikram Samvat, the exact year of the said event can be said to be 1095 AD.

The Kashmiri origin of the ‘Sancha’ treatise is further collaborated by the fact that even today before consulting the ‘Sancha’ text, Himachali Brahmans pay obeisance to Kashmir in the following lines, “Vidhya Suri Kashmiri Lagan dekh Shodan Vichar”. The Sancha Granth has detailed information about astrology, planetary placements, interpretation of Zodiac and planetary movements. Based on the intricate knowledge of ‘Sancha Granth’, the ‘Pabuchi’ scholars prepare a local variation of almanac (Jantri) called ‘Chri’. The three important components of ‘Chri’ are ‘Var’ i.e. day of the week or an occasion, ‘Tithi’ i.e. a lunar day or date and the planetary movements and their positions. The ‘Chiri’ is based on the solar planetary system, which regards Baisakhi as the first day of the New Year. To get solutions, answers and remedies for the different paradoxes that rock the day to day life, the ‘Sancha’ text is always consulted for the required help. Resembling a gambling dice, the ‘pasha’ or ‘pasa’ is employed in deciphering the required information from the ‘Sancha’ text. The ‘pasha’ or ‘pasa’ has an inscription of four numerical digits marked as 0,00,000 and 0000, which have the corresponding numerical strength of 1,2,3 and 4 respectively. These numerical digits are marked on the individual pages separately. Each numerical digit with an individual value of sixteen ‘Horas’ make a sum total of sixty four ‘Horas’, with one ‘Hora’ being equal to one twenty fourth part of a day.

The ‘Pashas’ or ‘Pasa’ are specially prepared only on auspicious days and involve elaborate religious rituals. The different ‘Horas’ that are in-vogue in the ‘Sancha Granth’ are known as ‘Kaalgaymi Hora’, ‘Bhoot Prashan Hora’, ‘Lagan Ki Hora’ and ‘Tithi Ki Hora’ etc. The square shaped ‘pasha’ or ‘pasa’ is usually made up of an elephant tooth, being 1½ to 2 inches in length and with the width of a finger. According to a belief in Sirmour area, the ‘Yantra’ and ‘Lagans’ made from the soil brought from the village Chanan, give better results while consulting ‘Sancha’ text. The Brahmans engaged in the ‘Sancha’ profession take every care to maintain the knowledge secrecy and imparting of it’s knowledge is confined only within the family.

The Kashmiri origin of the ‘Sancha’ text has also been acknowledged by Sh. Sudershan Vashisht, who is a well known author and researcher of Himachal Pradesh and has done note-worthy research work in this direction. The ancient and precious Sancha texts are also found in tehsil Chopal, tehsil Shilayi and Chakrota area of Uttar Pradesh.Pandit Om Prakash and Pandit Devi Ram, the native Brahmans of the village Khadanka in Sirmour are experts in Sancha knowledge and it’s system. Another Brahman named Pandit Shivanand, a resident of the village Janloag in Sirmour has also thorough knowledge of ‘Sancha’ texts. He makes accurate predictions based on it’s knowledge. Pt. Mohan Lal, a native of the village Dehar in Sirmour is a well-known name due to his thorough and intimate Sancha knowledge. The present day experts of Sancha Vidhya acknowledge their Kashmiri origin and lineage.
Undoubtedly, ‘Sancha’ is an ancient and sacred knowledge of Kashmiri origin, which is an integral part of our historical cultural heritage. It is a glorious reminder of our rich past and the proud contribution of Kashmiri Pandits, who have left an indelible mark on the pages of history.

(By Upendar Ambardar)

Pitra Paksh -Remembering Ancestors

Every year a fortnight in the Hindu calendar month of Ashwin is observed in the fond memory of our ancestors. This period is referred as Shraddha or Pitra Paksha. The Shraddha – is derived from Shraddha which means faith. Hence the faith in one’s ancestors’ makes the mortals observe some customary rituals year on year with reverence and faith in their memories when the ancestors are no more alive.

The story goes that The King Karna the famous warrior of Mahabharata was granted heaven after the war. Karna was famous for his charity throughout his life and earned a sobriquet of Dhan Veer – The one who gives away everything in charity. So much so that during the war of Kurushetra he gave away his protective shield when Lord Indra disguised as seeker asked for the same. However, in heaven Karna was offered precious Gems, Gold and other items instead of food and water. Puzzled by this treatment Karna asked the gods about this. On this Lord Indra told him that he had been giving only gold and gems as a charity but had never given food and water to the poor or deserving people hence he was given same treatment in heaven. Karna requested gods to give him a chance to correct his anomalies and the same was granted to him and he was asked to go back to earth for some days to feed poor so as to get rid of the problem. Hence, this period of the year is observed in giving food, water and clothing to poor and also performing rituals associated with it.

The ritual of shradha is done as it is believed that ceremony shall enable forefathers to ascend higher plane of existence. Besides relieving the ancestors from traps of unfulfilled wishes. We owe our existence from our ancestors and forefathers. Therefore, this is the time when we can remember them and repay our debt.

Shradha is the only way when ancestors receive our oblations and hence get pleased. This results in peace to them and happiness in their families.
The detailed rituals of Shradha are performed by priests who follow the manual as per the scriptures and litany of ceremonies. The elder of the family keeps the fast in memory of deceased besides offering each Pind in the name of the ancestors who are no more alive.

The message of Pitru paksh as envisaged by our Rishis are :- ​

Remembering – Pitru Paksh also enables us to think that this life is transitory and one day we too would pass. Therefore, it is the time to remember our forefathers and simultaneously be good to elders in our family.
Sharing – It also cultivates a habit of giving away things like food and clothes in charity among poor destitute thus inculcating the spirit of sharing.
Good Deeds – The Shradha also makes us remember the good deeds of our ancestor’s which act as a catalyst in us to follow the footsteps and carry on the legacy of goodness shown by them.
Family Lineage – This fortnight also makes us remember all the ancestors who were in the family thus, passing their existential journey among our progeny so that they can remember the family tree and linages.
Focus on Spiritual – The rituals wean us away from the grind of day to day material world and forces us to think on the matters more spiritual than mundane in nature thus, forcing us to think about our existence and role in families, societies and nation of which we are an integral part and parcel.

According to Neelmat Puran the important places for performing Shradha are at Lake Gangabal in Kangan besides at places like Shadipur which is the confluence of river Vitista (Jhelum) and Sindhu, Martand (Mattan) in Anantnag, Kapalmochan in Shopian and shores of Vitista. Performing sharda at these given places elevates the soul journey of dead to higher planes besides granting peace and spiritual merits to the families. In Jammu the places of performing Shradha are Uttarbani in Kathua and Ghats of Chandrabhaga at Akhnoor.

The other important places across India where such detailed rituals are performed since time immemorial are at Haridwar in Uttrakhand, Varanasi & Allahabad in U.P., Gaya in Bihar, Pushker in Rajasthan, Nashik in Maharashtra, Gokarna in Karnataka, Rameshwaram in T.N.

Therefore, lets resolve in this pitra paksha that we shall share our happiness, food, clothing with those who are neglected, poor, destitute and orphans so that we embrace them a part of our society and also take a pledge that we make the life our elders in family more comfortable which they deserve and which we owe to them as their progeny.

By-Sunil Raina Rajanaka

Ruins of Sun Temple Kashmir