Tag Archives: kashmir

Regulation of Vitasta (Jhelum) by Suyya

Kalhana writes in ‘Rajatarangini’ about the illustrious visionary Suyya- The Engineer .He lived during the King Avantivarman’s Rule and was in fact whole heatedly supported by the king in his endeavor. Kalhana has given in detail about this great Engineering Operation, which was carried out in his reign(Avantivarman)for the drainage of the valley as well as for irrigation.
The topographically interesting details of these operations which are connected with the name of Avantivarman’s skillful Engineer Suyya. The systematic regulation of the course of the vitasta , down to the rock-bound gorge where it leaves the valley, largely reduced the extent of the water-locked tracts along the banks of the river and the damage to the crops caused by floods. The construction of the new beds for the river at points threatened by the inundation-breaches was among the measures designed to effect the same object.The change thus made in the confluence of the vitasta and its most important tributary , the Sindhu, can still be clearly traced, thanks to Kalhana’s accurate topographical Data. It shows alike the large scale and the systematic technical basis of Suyya’s regulation. The result of the latter was a great increase of land available for cultivation , and increased protection against disastrous floods which in Kashmir have ever been the main cause of famine.
According to the account of the chronicler, Suyya supplemented these measures by equally important improvements in the system of irrigation which indispensable for the cultivation of Rice, the staple produce of Kashmir. The facilities thus secured for cultivation produced a remarkable reduction in the orice of rice, the cost of a Khari being alleged to have fallen from 200 Dinnaras to 36 Dinnaras in consequence.

It is only natural that the story of this great change in the material condition of the country which so closely affected the welfare of its inhabitants should have exercised popular imagination , already at the time and still more thereafter.We accordingly find the account of Suyya’s origin and his initial proceedings embellished with details which are manifestly legendary. But though the anecdotes to which we are treated, can have no foundation in historical fact, yet they are just such as would readily be accepted by contemporary popular tradition. Suyya’s memory is preserved to this day by the town of Suyyapura, the present Sopore-which was founded by him at the point where the vitasta since his regulation leaves the basin of the volur lake.

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Small List of Kashmiri Pandits killed by Militants

This is the small list of kps murdered by muslim terrorists.

Sr. Name of the Victim Date of Killing

1 PRABHAVATI 14.03.1989

2 DINA NATH RAINA 15.08.1989

3 TIKA LAL TIPLOO 14.09.1989

4 SMT. SHEELA TICKOO 01.11.1989

5 NEEL KANT GANJOO 01.11.1989

6 PREM NATH BHAT 27.12.1989

7 M.L.BHAN 15.01.1990

8 P.K.KOTRU 19.01.1990

9 SATISH KR. TICKOO 22.01.1990

10 TEJ KRISHEN RAZDAN 12.02.1990

11 LASSA KOUL 13.02.1990

12 ANIL BHAN 16.02.1990

13 ASHOK QAZI 23.02.1990

14 NAVEEN SAPROO 27.02.1990

15 P.N. HANDOO 01.03.1990

16 JAGAR NATH 03.03.1990

17 NIRMALA RAINA 06.03.1990

18 KASHI NATH 06.03.1990

19 RATTAN LAL 10.03.1990

20 T.K.RAZDAN 15.03.1990

21 A.K.RAINA 19.03.1990

22 B.K.GANJOO 19.03.1990

23 GULSHAN LAL RAINA 19.03.1990

24 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 20.03.1990

25 GULSHAN LAL LAMBA 21.03.1990

26 P.L.FOTEADAR 22.03.1990

27 SOOM NATH TICKOO 23.03.1990

28 B.L.MISIRI 23.03.1990

29 TRILOKI NATH AMBARDAR 23.03.1990

30 BANSI LAL 24.03.1990

31 A.K.BAZAZ 26.03.1990

32 PREM NATH KOUL 05.04.1990

33 PREM NATH TICKOO 05.04.1990

34 K.K.KOUL 05.04.1990

35 RADHA KRISHAN 05.04.1990

36 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 06.04.1990

37 ASHOK KUMAR 06.04.1990

38 H.L.KHERA 06.04.1990

39 RAMEESH PEER 06.04.1990

40 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

41 KARI LAL 09.04.1990

42 MAKHAN LAL WANGANOO 10.04.1990

43 SARLA BHAT 19.04.1990

44 MAKHAN LAL 21.04.1990

45 SUSHEEL KR. KOTRU 23.04.1990

46 SUSHIL KR KOTRU 23.04.1990

47 NIRANJAN NATH 24.04.1990

48 BANSI LAL SAPRU 24.04.1990

49 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

50 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

51 RAVINDER KR. PANDIT 25.04.1990

52 KASHI RAM 25.04.1990

53 BUSHAN LAL 26.04.1990

54 DR.RAJ NATH 26.04.1990

55 BRIJ NATH 26.04.1990

56 RAJ NATH RAINA 26.04.1990

57 BANSI LAL 27/28.04.1990

58 BHARAT BHUSHAN 27/28.04.1990

59 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN BHAT 28.04.1990

60 GUSHI LAL 29.04.1990

61 M.L.PANDITA 29.04.1990

62 DILEEP KUMAR 30.04.1990

63 HEERA LAL KHAR 30.04.1990

64 DAWARIKA NATH 01.05.1990

65 SARWANANAD KOUL PREMI 01.05.1990

66 VIRENDER KUMAR 01.05.1990

67 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 01.05.1990

68 MAKHAN LAL THAPLOO 02.05.1990

69 AVTAR KRISHAN 02.05.1990

70 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 02.05.1990

71 PROF.K.L.GANJU 02/03.05.1990

72 SMT. PRANA GANJOO 02/03.05.1990

73 VINOD KR. CHATTA 03.05.1990

74 VINOD KUMAR 03.05.1990

75 DAYA KRISHN 03.05.1990

76 SURIEND CHAND 04.05.1990

77 MOHAN LAL BHAT 04.05.1990

78 RAMESH KR. RAINA 05.05.1990

79 SURINDER DHAR 05.05.1990

80 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

81 KUNDAN LAL GANJOO 07.05.1990

82 DOLLY 07.05.1990

83 RAMESH KR RAINA 07.05.1990

84 BIHARI LAL LABAROO 09.05.1990

85 RATTAN LAL 10.05.1990

86 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

87 SURINDER KUMAR 10.05.1990

88 MOTI LAL BHAT 10.05.1990

89 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

90 AMAR NATH BAGATI 11.05.1990

91 OMKAR NATH 11.05.1990

92 POSHKAR NATH 11.05.1990

93 MOHAN LAL 13.05.1990

94 INDERJEET 13.05.1990

95 VEER JI @VAID JI BHAT 13.05.1990

96 ASHOK KUMAR 13.05.1990

97 BUSHAN LAL 13.05.1990

98 DAYA KRISHEN DULLO 13.05.1990

99 MAM MOHAN SHARMA 15.05.1990

100 SAROOP NATH 15.05.1990

101 A.K.WAZIR 15.05.1990

102 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 16.05.1990

103 BUSHAN LAL 17.05.1990

104 SHAM LAL SHARMA 17.05.1990

105 CHUNI LAL 17.05.1990

106 SURESH KR. KISSU 17.05.1990

107 MANMOHAN BACHLOO 18.05.1990

108 JIYA LAL KAW 18.05.1990

109 MINOR 18.05.1990

110 DILEEP KUMAR 19.05.1990

111 MOTI LAL RAINA 20.05.1990

112 DILEEP JI 21.05.1990

113 PRATHIVI NATH HAKIM 21.05.1990

114 CHAMAN LAL PANDIT 22.05.1990

115 PREM NATH BHAT 23.05.1990

116 SHAMBU NATH 24.05.1990

117 BANSI LAL SHARMA 24.05.1990

118 PREM NATH BHAT 25.05.1990

119 SHANKER DASS 26.05.1990

120 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 28.05.1990

121 SEEMA ALIAS BABLI 28.05.1990

122 RAMESH KR RAINA 28.05.1990

123 MAHARAJ KRISHEN 30.05.1990

124 JAWAHIR LAL WANCHOO 30.05.1990

125 KRISHAN LAL WAGROO 31.05.1990

126 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 31.05.1990

127 AVTAR KRISHEN 31.05.1990

128 JAGAR NATH 31.05.1990

129 RAMESH KUMAR 01.06.1990

130 KANA YA LAL BHAT 01.06.1990

131 BADRI NATH 02.06.1990

132 DAMODHAR RAINA 02.06.1990

133 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 02.06.1990

134 DAMODAR SWAROOP RAINA 02.06.1990

135 SATISH LAL KALLA 03.06.1990

136 SHIBAN KRISHEN KULLA 03.06.1990

137 AFTAB RAM 04.06.1990

138 GOKAL NATH 04.06.1990

139 RADHA KRISHAN PATWARI 06.06.1990

140 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.06.1990

141 RAMESH KR. RAINA 07.06.1990

142 RAJ KR. JAILKHANI 07.06.1990

143 SHAM LAL 07.06.1990

144 RADHA KRISHAN 07.06.1990

145 SMT.GIRJA TICKOO 11.06.1990

146 INDER KUMAR 11.06.1990

147 KANAYA LAL 11.06.1990

148 SOOM NATH 11.06.1990

149 GIRJA KUMARI TICKOO 11.06.1990

150 ASHOK KR. PANDITA 12.06.1990

151 KANYA LAL 12.06.1990

152 TRILOKI NATH 12.06.1990

153 CHUNI LAL 13.06.1990

154 DAYARAM KOUL 13.06.1990

155 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

156 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

157 A.K.SAFAYA 15.06.1990

158 DAYARAM KOUL 15.06.1990

159 RAMCHAND 15.06.1990

160 SAROOP NATH 16.06.1990

161 GOPI CHAND 17.06.1990

162 BADRI NATH KOUL 18.06.1990

163 JAWAHIR LAL GANJOO 18.06.1990

164 SMT. PARANA GANJOO 18.06.1990

165 SMT.DURGA KOUL 18.06.1990

TEJ KRISHAN PANDIT 19.06.1990

166 RAJINDER KR. TICKOO 20.06.1990

167 SANJAY THUSOO 21.06.1990

168 SMT GIGARI 22.06.1990

169 BAL KRISHEN TATOO 22.06.1990

170 BALJEE 22.06.1990

171 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

172 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

173 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

174 M.L.BHAT 22/23.06.1990

175 ASHOK KUMAR 23.06.1990

176 PRATHAVI NATH TICKOO 23.06.1990

177 ASHWANI KUMAR 23.06.1990

178 ASHOK KR. KOTHA 24.06.1990

179 SOOM NATH 24.06.1990

180 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 24.06.1990

181 SOOM NATH KOUL 24.06.1990

182 BADRI NATH WATTAL 25.06.1990

183 SATISH KR RAINA 25.06.1990

184 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

185 SATISH KUMAR 26.06.1990

186 GOPAL NATH 26.06.1990

187 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

188 T.N.RAINA 26.06.1990

189 YOGESH KUMAR 26.06.1990

190 GOPI NATH RAINA 26.06.1990

191 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

192 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

193 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

194 SMT. BABLI 28.06.1990

195 SMT.ROOPAWATI 28.06.1990

196 VIVAK LABAROO @SHABAJEE 29.06.1990

197 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

198 PROF. NEEL KANT. RAINA 30.06.1990

199 RAJINDER 30.06.1990

200 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

201 TRILKOI NATH 01.07.1990

202 N.G.SADHU 01.07.1990

203 DINA NATH 01.07.1990

204 RAJ NATH DHAR 01.07.1990

205 SMT. GIRJA DHAR 01.07.1990

206 SMT. TEJA DHAR 01.07.1990

207 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN 02.07.1990

208 SMT. ARANDATTI 02.07.1990

209 MAKHAN LAL 03.07.1990

210 MOHAN LAL 03.07.1990

211 SATISH KUMAR 06.07.1990

212 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.07.1990

213 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

214 DINA NATH MUJOO 07.07.1990

215 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

216 SHIBAN KOUL 08.07.1990

217 GOURI SHANKER 09.07.1990

218 AVTAR KRISHAN 09.07.1990

219 INDER KRISHAN 10.07.1990

220 SHAMBU NATH 11.07.1990

221 INDER KUMAR 11.07.1990

222 NANAJI 11.07.1990

223 SHIBAN LAL KOUL 11.07.1990

224 JIWAN LAL 15.07.1990

225 BISHAMBAR NATH KOUL 15/16.07.1990

226 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 15/16.07.1990

227 VAID PRAKESH KOUL 16.07.1990

228 BRIJ NATH KOUL 16.07.1990

229 ANANAD NARAYAN 17.07.1990

230 CHAND RAM KHER 17.07.1990

231 DR. SONI 18.07.1990

232 BRIJ NATH KOUL 19.07.1990

233 JANKI NATH 20.07.1990

234 NATH JI 26.07.1990

235 VAID LAL 26.07.1990

236 JANKI NATH 26.07.1990

237 GOURI SHANKER 29.07.1990

238 ADARSH JEE 29.07.1990

239 JAI KRISHAN 02.08.1990

240 RAM NATH BHAT 06.08.1990

241 R.K.HANDOO 09.08.1990

242 SAROOP NARAYAN 10.08.1990

243 MANOJ KUMAR 10.08.1990

244 PRATHAVI NATH BALI 10.08.1990

245 VASUDEV PANDIT 11.08.1990

246 D.N.CHOEDHARY 11.08.1990

247 RASHANLAL CHOWDHARY 11.08.1990

248 VASUDEV PANDITA 11.08.1990

249 AUTAR KRISHEN PANDITA 12.08.1990

250 DARSHAN KOUL 15.08.1990

251 MASHER NATH 16.08.1990

252 RATTAN LAL RAINA 18.08.1990

253 SHANKER NATH TIKU 21.08.1990

254 BANSI LAL RAINA 28.08.1990

255 OMKAR NATH KOUL 29.08.1990

256 SHADI LAL BHAT 04.09.1990

257 PRATHVI NATH 05/06.09.1990

258 MAKHAN LAL 08.09.1990

259 HIDAY NATH 09.09.1990

260 GOURI SHANKER 10.09.1990

261 SMT.TRIKAJI 10.09.1990

262 TRILOKI NATH 11.09.1990

263 RAMESH KUMAR 12.09.1990

264 AVTAR KRISHEN 12/13.09.1990

265 DAWARIKA NATH 13.09.1990

266 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 14.09.1990

267 RATTAN LAL PANDITA 17.09.1990

268 PAIRAY LAL RAINA 23.09.1990

269 DURGA PRASAD 05.10.1990

270 D.P.KHAZANCHI 06.10.1990

271 JAGAR NATH 07.10.1990

272 ZIND LAL 07.10.1990

273 JAGAR NATH PANDITA 07.10.1990

274 POSHKAR NATH RAZDAN 12.10.1990

275 SMT. USHA JI 14.10.1990

276 AUSHA KOUL 14.10.1990

277 DR.SHIBAN JI KHIRDI 14.10.1990

278 RAJINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

279 SATUSH KOUL 14.10.1990

280 SMT. NEETA JI 14.10.1990

281 SMT.NANCY KOUL 14.10.1990

282 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 15.10.1990

283 MAKHAN LAL BHAT 17.10.1990

284 PREM NATH BHAT 17.10.1990

285 POSHKER NATH 18.10.1990

286 SMT. PINKI KOUL 09.11.1990

287 MOHAN LAL KOUL 19.11.1990

288 OMKAR NATN WALI 02.01.1991

289 BALDEV RAJ DUTTA 19.01.1991

290 MADAN MOHAN 11.06.1991

291 KASHI NATH KOUL 13.06.1991

292 NANAJEE 13.06.1991

293 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

294 MOHAN LAL MATTOO 01.07.1991

295 SMT. VIJAY BHAT 31.07.1991

296 SURINDER KUMAR 26.08.1991

297 MOHAN LAL 08.10.1991

298 RAMESH KUMAR 09.10.1991

299 POSHKAR NATH 12.10.1991

300 MEHESHER NATH 15.10.1991

301 SHAM LAL PANDITH 15.10.1991

302 KANHAYA LAL PESHIN 18.10.1991

303 KANAYA LAL 19.10.1991

304 JANKI NATH KOUL 14.12.1991

305 ARCHANA BRAROO 30.03.1992

306 SMT. BIMALA BRAROO 30.03.1992

307 SOHAN LAL BRAROO 30.03.1992

308 RATTAN LAL HALI 20.05.1992

309 DURA NATH RAFIZ 03.06.1992

310 CHAMAN LAL KOUL 11.10.1992

311 SOOM NATH RAINA 11.10.1992

312 H.N.WANCHOO 05.12.1992

313 SMT.ASHA PANDIT 29.12.1992

314 TEJ KRISHEN 12.02.1993

315 PREM NATH BHAT 06.06.1993

316 JAGAR NATH 06.07.1993

317 NEEL KANT LALA 25.07.1993

318 KANYA LAL DUDHA 14.08.1993

319 AVTAR KRISHEN 24.10.1993

320 PRADEEP KUMAR BHAT 28.01.1994

321 SANJAY KUMAR @CHAKO 10.05.1994

322 PIYAR LAL RAINA 13.07.1994

323 TEJ KRISHEN BHAT 03.12.1994

324 SONA RAM 25.07.1995

325 CHUNI LAL BHAT 12.05.1996

326 RAJ NATH 05.06.1996

327 AVTAR KRISHAN 21/22.03.1997

328 BUSHAN LAL BHAT 21/22.03.1997

329 DEELEEP BHAT 21/22.03.1997

330 PAIRAY LAL PANDIT 21/22.03.1997

331 SANJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

332 TRILOKI NATH 21/22.03.1997

333 VIJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

334 AKSHAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

335 BADRI NATH 25.01.1998

336 JYOTI 25.01.1998

337 KASHI NATH 25.01.1998

338 MEENAKSHI 25.01.1998

339 MOTI LAL BHAT 25.01.1998

340 RAKESH KUMAR 25.01.1998

341 SANJAY KR. BHAT 25.01.1998

342 SARIKA 25.01.1998

343 SARLA KUMARI 25.01.1998

344 SEEMA KUMARI 25.01.1998

345 SMT. CHOTI 25.01.1998

346 SMT. DULARI 25.01.1998

347 SMT. NEERU JI 25.01.1998

348 SUDARSHAN 25.01.1998

349 TRILOKI NATH 25.01.1998

350 VIJAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

351 VIKAS KUMAR 25.01.1998

352 VINOD KUMAR 25.01.1998

353 ASHOK KUMAR 04.02.2000

354 UNSHOO 04.02.2000

355 VEER JI 04.02.2000

356 BRIJ NATH BHAT 04.03.2000

357 SMT LAKHSHMI DEVI 21.12.2001

358 SMT. SONI 21.12.2001

359 AMIT KHER 24.03.2003

360 AVTAR KRISHAN 24.03.2003

361 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

362 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

363 JIGA KUMARI 24.03.2003

364 LASA KOUL 24.03.2003

365 LOK NATH 24.03.2003

366 MOHAN LAL 24.03.2003

367 MUNA 24.03.2003

368 PRETAM KRISHEN 24.03.2003

369 PRETAM KUMARI 24.03.2003

370 PRINCY KUMARI 24.03.2003

371 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

372 RAJANI 24.03.2003

373 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

374 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

375 RAJANI 24.03.2003

376 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

377 RAKESH KUMAR 24.03.2003

378 SMT SUMAN JI 24.03.2003

379 SMT. SOOMAVATI 24.03.2003

380 SMT.ASHA 24.03.2003

381 SURAJ 24.03.2003

382 TRILOKI NATH 24.03.2003

383 TEJ KRISHAN 03.12.2004.

384 O. N. MOTTA 29.07.1990

385 USHA KUMARI KOUL 14.10.1990

386 RATINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

387 Radha Krishen Koul 24.08.1990

and MANY MORE..they we killed in their home in offices on road where ever they wete found.And world was silentThis is the small list of kps murdered by muslim terrorists.

Sr. Name of the Victim Date of Killing

1 PRABHAVATI 14.03.1989

2 DINA NATH RAINA 15.08.1989

3 TIKA LAL TIPLOO 14.09.1989

4 SMT. SHEELA TICKOO 01.11.1989

5 NEEL KANT GANJOO 01.11.1989

6 PREM NATH BHAT 27.12.1989

7 M.L.BHAN 15.01.1990

8 P.K.KOTRU 19.01.1990

9 SATISH KR. TICKOO 22.01.1990

10 TEJ KRISHEN RAZDAN 12.02.1990

11 LASSA KOUL 13.02.1990

12 ANIL BHAN 16.02.1990

13 ASHOK QAZI 23.02.1990

14 NAVEEN SAPROO 27.02.1990

15 P.N. HANDOO 01.03.1990

16 JAGAR NATH 03.03.1990

17 NIRMALA RAINA 06.03.1990

18 KASHI NATH 06.03.1990

19 RATTAN LAL 10.03.1990

20 T.K.RAZDAN 15.03.1990

21 A.K.RAINA 19.03.1990

22 B.K.GANJOO 19.03.1990

23 GULSHAN LAL RAINA 19.03.1990

24 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 20.03.1990

25 GULSHAN LAL LAMBA 21.03.1990

26 P.L.FOTEADAR 22.03.1990

27 SOOM NATH TICKOO 23.03.1990

28 B.L.MISIRI 23.03.1990

29 TRILOKI NATH AMBARDAR 23.03.1990

30 BANSI LAL 24.03.1990

31 A.K.BAZAZ 26.03.1990

32 PREM NATH KOUL 05.04.1990

33 PREM NATH TICKOO 05.04.1990

34 K.K.KOUL 05.04.1990

35 RADHA KRISHAN 05.04.1990

36 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 06.04.1990

37 ASHOK KUMAR 06.04.1990

38 H.L.KHERA 06.04.1990

39 RAMEESH PEER 06.04.1990

40 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

41 KARI LAL 09.04.1990

42 MAKHAN LAL WANGANOO 10.04.1990

43 SARLA BHAT 19.04.1990

44 MAKHAN LAL 21.04.1990

45 SUSHEEL KR. KOTRU 23.04.1990

46 SUSHIL KR KOTRU 23.04.1990

47 NIRANJAN NATH 24.04.1990

48 BANSI LAL SAPRU 24.04.1990

49 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

50 NARENDER NATH 24.04.1990

51 RAVINDER KR. PANDIT 25.04.1990

52 KASHI RAM 25.04.1990

53 BUSHAN LAL 26.04.1990

54 DR.RAJ NATH 26.04.1990

55 BRIJ NATH 26.04.1990

56 RAJ NATH RAINA 26.04.1990

57 BANSI LAL 27/28.04.1990

58 BHARAT BHUSHAN 27/28.04.1990

59 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN BHAT 28.04.1990

60 GUSHI LAL 29.04.1990

61 M.L.PANDITA 29.04.1990

62 DILEEP KUMAR 30.04.1990

63 HEERA LAL KHAR 30.04.1990

64 DAWARIKA NATH 01.05.1990

65 SARWANANAD KOUL PREMI 01.05.1990

66 VIRENDER KUMAR 01.05.1990

67 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 01.05.1990

68 MAKHAN LAL THAPLOO 02.05.1990

69 AVTAR KRISHAN 02.05.1990

70 CHUNI LAL SHALLA 02.05.1990

71 PROF.K.L.GANJU 02/03.05.1990

72 SMT. PRANA GANJOO 02/03.05.1990

73 VINOD KR. CHATTA 03.05.1990

74 VINOD KUMAR 03.05.1990

75 DAYA KRISHN 03.05.1990

76 SURIEND CHAND 04.05.1990

77 MOHAN LAL BHAT 04.05.1990

78 RAMESH KR. RAINA 05.05.1990

79 SURINDER DHAR 05.05.1990

80 VINOD KUMAR 06.05.1990

81 KUNDAN LAL GANJOO 07.05.1990

82 DOLLY 07.05.1990

83 RAMESH KR RAINA 07.05.1990

84 BIHARI LAL LABAROO 09.05.1990

85 RATTAN LAL 10.05.1990

86 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

87 SURINDER KUMAR 10.05.1990

88 MOTI LAL BHAT 10.05.1990

89 BABLI RAINA 10.05.1990

90 AMAR NATH BAGATI 11.05.1990

91 OMKAR NATH 11.05.1990

92 POSHKAR NATH 11.05.1990

93 MOHAN LAL 13.05.1990

94 INDERJEET 13.05.1990

95 VEER JI @VAID JI BHAT 13.05.1990

96 ASHOK KUMAR 13.05.1990

97 BUSHAN LAL 13.05.1990

98 DAYA KRISHEN DULLO 13.05.1990

99 MAM MOHAN SHARMA 15.05.1990

100 SAROOP NATH 15.05.1990

101 A.K.WAZIR 15.05.1990

102 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 16.05.1990

103 BUSHAN LAL 17.05.1990

104 SHAM LAL SHARMA 17.05.1990

105 CHUNI LAL 17.05.1990

106 SURESH KR. KISSU 17.05.1990

107 MANMOHAN BACHLOO 18.05.1990

108 JIYA LAL KAW 18.05.1990

109 MINOR 18.05.1990

110 DILEEP KUMAR 19.05.1990

111 MOTI LAL RAINA 20.05.1990

112 DILEEP JI 21.05.1990

113 PRATHIVI NATH HAKIM 21.05.1990

114 CHAMAN LAL PANDIT 22.05.1990

115 PREM NATH BHAT 23.05.1990

116 SHAMBU NATH 24.05.1990

117 BANSI LAL SHARMA 24.05.1990

118 PREM NATH BHAT 25.05.1990

119 SHANKER DASS 26.05.1990

120 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 28.05.1990

121 SEEMA ALIAS BABLI 28.05.1990

122 RAMESH KR RAINA 28.05.1990

123 MAHARAJ KRISHEN 30.05.1990

124 JAWAHIR LAL WANCHOO 30.05.1990

125 KRISHAN LAL WAGROO 31.05.1990

126 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 31.05.1990

127 AVTAR KRISHEN 31.05.1990

128 JAGAR NATH 31.05.1990

129 RAMESH KUMAR 01.06.1990

130 KANA YA LAL BHAT 01.06.1990

131 BADRI NATH 02.06.1990

132 DAMODHAR RAINA 02.06.1990

133 BUSHAN LAL KOUL 02.06.1990

134 DAMODAR SWAROOP RAINA 02.06.1990

135 SATISH LAL KALLA 03.06.1990

136 SHIBAN KRISHEN KULLA 03.06.1990

137 AFTAB RAM 04.06.1990

138 GOKAL NATH 04.06.1990

139 RADHA KRISHAN PATWARI 06.06.1990

140 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.06.1990

141 RAMESH KR. RAINA 07.06.1990

142 RAJ KR. JAILKHANI 07.06.1990

143 SHAM LAL 07.06.1990

144 RADHA KRISHAN 07.06.1990

145 SMT.GIRJA TICKOO 11.06.1990

146 INDER KUMAR 11.06.1990

147 KANAYA LAL 11.06.1990

148 SOOM NATH 11.06.1990

149 GIRJA KUMARI TICKOO 11.06.1990

150 ASHOK KR. PANDITA 12.06.1990

151 KANYA LAL 12.06.1990

152 TRILOKI NATH 12.06.1990

153 CHUNI LAL 13.06.1990

154 DAYARAM KOUL 13.06.1990

155 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

156 RUGH NATH 14.06.1990

157 A.K.SAFAYA 15.06.1990

158 DAYARAM KOUL 15.06.1990

159 RAMCHAND 15.06.1990

160 SAROOP NATH 16.06.1990

161 GOPI CHAND 17.06.1990

162 BADRI NATH KOUL 18.06.1990

163 JAWAHIR LAL GANJOO 18.06.1990

164 SMT. PARANA GANJOO 18.06.1990

165 SMT.DURGA KOUL 18.06.1990

TEJ KRISHAN PANDIT 19.06.1990

166 RAJINDER KR. TICKOO 20.06.1990

167 SANJAY THUSOO 21.06.1990

168 SMT GIGARI 22.06.1990

169 BAL KRISHEN TATOO 22.06.1990

170 BALJEE 22.06.1990

171 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

172 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

173 MAKHAN LAL RAINA 22.06.1990

174 M.L.BHAT 22/23.06.1990

175 ASHOK KUMAR 23.06.1990

176 PRATHAVI NATH TICKOO 23.06.1990

177 ASHWANI KUMAR 23.06.1990

178 ASHOK KR. KOTHA 24.06.1990

179 SOOM NATH 24.06.1990

180 CHAMAN LAL TICKOO 24.06.1990

181 SOOM NATH KOUL 24.06.1990

182 BADRI NATH WATTAL 25.06.1990

183 SATISH KR RAINA 25.06.1990

184 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

185 SATISH KUMAR 26.06.1990

186 GOPAL NATH 26.06.1990

187 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

188 T.N.RAINA 26.06.1990

189 YOGESH KUMAR 26.06.1990

190 GOPI NATH RAINA 26.06.1990

191 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

192 RAMESH RAZDAN 26.06.1990

193 BRIJ LAL RAINA 26.06.1990

194 SMT. BABLI 28.06.1990

195 SMT.ROOPAWATI 28.06.1990

196 VIVAK LABAROO @SHABAJEE 29.06.1990

197 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

198 PROF. NEEL KANT. RAINA 30.06.1990

199 RAJINDER 30.06.1990

200 OMKAR NATH MATTOO 30.06.1990

201 TRILKOI NATH 01.07.1990

202 N.G.SADHU 01.07.1990

203 DINA NATH 01.07.1990

204 RAJ NATH DHAR 01.07.1990

205 SMT. GIRJA DHAR 01.07.1990

206 SMT. TEJA DHAR 01.07.1990

207 PREDHIMAN KRISHAN 02.07.1990

208 SMT. ARANDATTI 02.07.1990

209 MAKHAN LAL 03.07.1990

210 MOHAN LAL 03.07.1990

211 SATISH KUMAR 06.07.1990

212 JAWAHIR LAL BHAT 06.07.1990

213 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

214 DINA NATH MUJOO 07.07.1990

215 GOPI NATH RAINA 07.07.1990

216 SHIBAN KOUL 08.07.1990

217 GOURI SHANKER 09.07.1990

218 AVTAR KRISHAN 09.07.1990

219 INDER KRISHAN 10.07.1990

220 SHAMBU NATH 11.07.1990

221 INDER KUMAR 11.07.1990

222 NANAJI 11.07.1990

223 SHIBAN LAL KOUL 11.07.1990

224 JIWAN LAL 15.07.1990

225 BISHAMBAR NATH KOUL 15/16.07.1990

226 RADHA KRISHAN KOUL 15/16.07.1990

227 VAID PRAKESH KOUL 16.07.1990

228 BRIJ NATH KOUL 16.07.1990

229 ANANAD NARAYAN 17.07.1990

230 CHAND RAM KHER 17.07.1990

231 DR. SONI 18.07.1990

232 BRIJ NATH KOUL 19.07.1990

233 JANKI NATH 20.07.1990

234 NATH JI 26.07.1990

235 VAID LAL 26.07.1990

236 JANKI NATH 26.07.1990

237 GOURI SHANKER 29.07.1990

238 ADARSH JEE 29.07.1990

239 JAI KRISHAN 02.08.1990

240 RAM NATH BHAT 06.08.1990

241 R.K.HANDOO 09.08.1990

242 SAROOP NARAYAN 10.08.1990

243 MANOJ KUMAR 10.08.1990

244 PRATHAVI NATH BALI 10.08.1990

245 VASUDEV PANDIT 11.08.1990

246 D.N.CHOEDHARY 11.08.1990

247 RASHANLAL CHOWDHARY 11.08.1990

248 VASUDEV PANDITA 11.08.1990

249 AUTAR KRISHEN PANDITA 12.08.1990

250 DARSHAN KOUL 15.08.1990

251 MASHER NATH 16.08.1990

252 RATTAN LAL RAINA 18.08.1990

253 SHANKER NATH TIKU 21.08.1990

254 BANSI LAL RAINA 28.08.1990

255 OMKAR NATH KOUL 29.08.1990

256 SHADI LAL BHAT 04.09.1990

257 PRATHVI NATH 05/06.09.1990

258 MAKHAN LAL 08.09.1990

259 HIDAY NATH 09.09.1990

260 GOURI SHANKER 10.09.1990

261 SMT.TRIKAJI 10.09.1990

262 TRILOKI NATH 11.09.1990

263 RAMESH KUMAR 12.09.1990

264 AVTAR KRISHEN 12/13.09.1990

265 DAWARIKA NATH 13.09.1990

266 AVTAR KRISHAN RAINA 14.09.1990

267 RATTAN LAL PANDITA 17.09.1990

268 PAIRAY LAL RAINA 23.09.1990

269 DURGA PRASAD 05.10.1990

270 D.P.KHAZANCHI 06.10.1990

271 JAGAR NATH 07.10.1990

272 ZIND LAL 07.10.1990

273 JAGAR NATH PANDITA 07.10.1990

274 POSHKAR NATH RAZDAN 12.10.1990

275 SMT. USHA JI 14.10.1990

276 AUSHA KOUL 14.10.1990

277 DR.SHIBAN JI KHIRDI 14.10.1990

278 RAJINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

279 SATUSH KOUL 14.10.1990

280 SMT. NEETA JI 14.10.1990

281 SMT.NANCY KOUL 14.10.1990

282 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 15.10.1990

283 MAKHAN LAL BHAT 17.10.1990

284 PREM NATH BHAT 17.10.1990

285 POSHKER NATH 18.10.1990

286 SMT. PINKI KOUL 09.11.1990

287 MOHAN LAL KOUL 19.11.1990

288 OMKAR NATN WALI 02.01.1991

289 BALDEV RAJ DUTTA 19.01.1991

290 MADAN MOHAN 11.06.1991

291 KASHI NATH KOUL 13.06.1991

292 NANAJEE 13.06.1991

293 SMT. ROHINI 22.06.1991

294 MOHAN LAL MATTOO 01.07.1991

295 SMT. VIJAY BHAT 31.07.1991

296 SURINDER KUMAR 26.08.1991

297 MOHAN LAL 08.10.1991

298 RAMESH KUMAR 09.10.1991

299 POSHKAR NATH 12.10.1991

300 MEHESHER NATH 15.10.1991

301 SHAM LAL PANDITH 15.10.1991

302 KANHAYA LAL PESHIN 18.10.1991

303 KANAYA LAL 19.10.1991

304 JANKI NATH KOUL 14.12.1991

305 ARCHANA BRAROO 30.03.1992

306 SMT. BIMALA BRAROO 30.03.1992

307 SOHAN LAL BRAROO 30.03.1992

308 RATTAN LAL HALI 20.05.1992

309 DURA NATH RAFIZ 03.06.1992

310 CHAMAN LAL KOUL 11.10.1992

311 SOOM NATH RAINA 11.10.1992

312 H.N.WANCHOO 05.12.1992

313 SMT.ASHA PANDIT 29.12.1992

314 TEJ KRISHEN 12.02.1993

315 PREM NATH BHAT 06.06.1993

316 JAGAR NATH 06.07.1993

317 NEEL KANT LALA 25.07.1993

318 KANYA LAL DUDHA 14.08.1993

319 AVTAR KRISHEN 24.10.1993

320 PRADEEP KUMAR BHAT 28.01.1994

321 SANJAY KUMAR @CHAKO 10.05.1994

322 PIYAR LAL RAINA 13.07.1994

323 TEJ KRISHEN BHAT 03.12.1994

324 SONA RAM 25.07.1995

325 CHUNI LAL BHAT 12.05.1996

326 RAJ NATH 05.06.1996

327 AVTAR KRISHAN 21/22.03.1997

328 BUSHAN LAL BHAT 21/22.03.1997

329 DEELEEP BHAT 21/22.03.1997

330 PAIRAY LAL PANDIT 21/22.03.1997

331 SANJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

332 TRILOKI NATH 21/22.03.1997

333 VIJAY BHAT 21/22.03.1997

334 AKSHAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

335 BADRI NATH 25.01.1998

336 JYOTI 25.01.1998

337 KASHI NATH 25.01.1998

338 MEENAKSHI 25.01.1998

339 MOTI LAL BHAT 25.01.1998

340 RAKESH KUMAR 25.01.1998

341 SANJAY KR. BHAT 25.01.1998

342 SARIKA 25.01.1998

343 SARLA KUMARI 25.01.1998

344 SEEMA KUMARI 25.01.1998

345 SMT. CHOTI 25.01.1998

346 SMT. DULARI 25.01.1998

347 SMT. NEERU JI 25.01.1998

348 SUDARSHAN 25.01.1998

349 TRILOKI NATH 25.01.1998

350 VIJAY KUMAR 25.01.1998

351 VIKAS KUMAR 25.01.1998

352 VINOD KUMAR 25.01.1998

353 ASHOK KUMAR 04.02.2000

354 UNSHOO 04.02.2000

355 VEER JI 04.02.2000

356 BRIJ NATH BHAT 04.03.2000

357 SMT LAKHSHMI DEVI 21.12.2001

358 SMT. SONI 21.12.2001

359 AMIT KHER 24.03.2003

360 AVTAR KRISHAN 24.03.2003

361 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

362 BANSI LAL 24.03.2003

363 JIGA KUMARI 24.03.2003

364 LASA KOUL 24.03.2003

365 LOK NATH 24.03.2003

366 MOHAN LAL 24.03.2003

367 MUNA 24.03.2003

368 PRETAM KRISHEN 24.03.2003

369 PRETAM KUMARI 24.03.2003

370 PRINCY KUMARI 24.03.2003

371 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

372 RAJANI 24.03.2003

373 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

374 RADHA KRISHEN BHAT 24.03.2003

375 RAJANI 24.03.2003

376 RAJINI KUMARI 24.03.2003

377 RAKESH KUMAR 24.03.2003

378 SMT SUMAN JI 24.03.2003

379 SMT. SOOMAVATI 24.03.2003

380 SMT.ASHA 24.03.2003

381 SURAJ 24.03.2003

382 TRILOKI NATH 24.03.2003

383 TEJ KRISHAN 03.12.2004.

384 O. N. MOTTA 29.07.1990

385 USHA KUMARI KOUL 14.10.1990

386 RATINDER KOUL 14.10.1990

387 Radha Krishen Koul 24.08.1990

and MANY MORE..they we killed in their home in offices on road where ever they were found.And world was silent.

( This is a post I found on whatsup)

Scenes from the 3 Decades of Kashmiri Pandits

(3 Decades of Kps)

Year1989-90

Dulari-The Seventy year old Matriarch , was standing in the middle of her Garden. Not a leaf of Grass was left in her frost-bitten-lawn. It was the peak of winter. She gave a cursory look around and strolled slowly , occasionally touching some of the dried up plants . She stopped near the Rose shrub and began to inspect the marigold plant, she has sown last summer just adjacent to it.

‘The marigold plant has dried up completely , so has this The Rose Bush’, She thought gloomily.

‘These winters eat up everything. I really wish the summers come soon.’ She looked upwards to the Post –Noon- Sun . Even though it was a bright shimmering sunny day, Nevertheless, The Sun too seemed to shiver.

After inspecting her Garden, she goes inside. It is around 1 Pm and time for Lunch. She washes her hands and sits in her Extended Kitchen- That basically serves as a Dining area for her family. She calls her daughter-in-law Phoolaji.

‘Hayayi Phoolaji, Battae sharei’ (Phoolaji serve the lunch)

It was the end of the year 1989.The Terrorists had become Blatantly Brazen after the kidnapping of Rubaiyya Syed. The Muslim neighbors too in hushed tones could be heard talking about, soon-to-get ‘Azadi’ . The Blanket curfew in the valley had forced all the family members of Dulari to stay indoors. Her family as well as Kashmiri Pandits neighbors too talked about the prevailing political circumstances that was filled with uncertainty. Yet, No one had imagined that a majority of Kashmiri Pandits will have to flee Kashmir within a month!

The Macabre dance of Death unleashed by the AK-47 laden Terrorists on KP’s had started and were targeting minority Hindus with impunity,

And then came the night of 19 Jan 1990-That changed forever the history of Kashmiri Pandits! The Kp’s were fleeing Kashmir in hordes. Dulari was no exception. She too left Kashmir as did her neighbors and relatives.
Future looks uncertain in Kashmir.

Year-2000-01

Dulari is now surrounded by new neighbors of Pan-India ethnicity in Faridabad . All these years, she has managed to speak her own version of Hindi. She uses a lot of Gesticulations in her conversations with neighbours as Kashmiri words pops up now and then unintentionally from her Mouth.

Dulari along with her Family had shifted to Faridabad in late 1995. Her elder Son has bought a House in Faridabad. It is built on a 100 sq yard plot. The front as well as the back yard is cemented . She is Old but still hard working and has lost no love for Gardening. She has secured and fenced a small patch of land may be 100 sq feet bordering the front side of her house. She religiously looks after that small garden. She has also sown with love the famous ‘Haak’ (collard greens) of Kashmiris in that lawn.

It is the month of March. She is inspecting her kitchen garden. Not much is there. Just one gaze is enough to tell about the health of her green friends. She opens the make-Shift gate of her garden. She squats near the marigold Plant and touches the flower.
‘Dear, If we would have been in Kashmir, I would have surrounded you with many more flowers and attended you better’. She was silently conveying her feelings to the flower.

‘Soon the marigold will be gone and so will be Haakh’ . These Harsh summers don’t spare anything’. She whispered .

‘Alas ! Kashmir was so beautiful!’ she sighed.

She does not have the same vigor, She once had in Kashmir. She feels the heat of the March Sun and slowly walks inside .

‘Hayyeyi Phoolaji Batta shaer’ (serve the lunch) – She orders her.

It has been 10 years now since KPs were forced into exile. Future in Kashmir still holds uncertain for them. She and her family are amongst the Lucky ones, who didn’t had to live in the dirty, unhygienic tattered tents of the refugee Camps-where still many of the community members were languishing .

Year-2018-19

Phoolaji-Her Daughter-in-law has become the new Matriarch since Dularis Death 12 years back.They now live in an apartment in Mumbai. After the death of her Mother-in-law; Phoolaji too has developed some love for Gardening.

In the balcony of her Flat, she has sown some saplings of Marigold as well as ‘Tulasi’ (Basil). Whenever, she waters or de-weeds the plants, The face of Dulari flashes in front of her mind. By planting and looking after the potted-Plants, she gets a strange sense of satisfaction. It is as if the soul of Dulari is watching her and is bestowing her with blessings.

She is standing in her Balcony. The Black clouds are moving fast as if they are on a mission! Needless to say, The infamous monsoons of the Mumbai have already arrived . Now and then the sky is roaring and it seems , it is going to pour too. To save the plants from being flooded by the downpours; Phoolaji shifts the pots to that area of the balcony, where they will be safe and Dry.

As soon as she had shifted the pots to a safer Dry place, The rains start.

‘Madamji, please come inside. The lunch is ready.’ Her maid shouts from the Kitchen.

She walks slowly towards the Dining area of her Flat and sits on the dining chair. She is served food by her maid. Today her maid has made ‘Haakh’. She is about to eat, when the familiar thought crosses her mind, yet once again.

‘The taste of Haakh was divine at Kashmir ! It would have been much more fun and happiness, had we been living at Kashmir !

But, Alas! Mahadev(God) had different plans. The medley of thoughts and emotions was disturbing somewhere in her Heart and Mind.

Soon after, the aroma of the food diverted her mind and brought her to her present at Mumbai. She takes the morsel of rice mixed with Haakh .

She can not forget that It has been 29 years and The situation for KPs in the valley has not changed a bit yet. To forget about the past, she switches on the TV , browses the channels to watch her favourite serial. While browsing, her eye catches the fleeting headline in one of the News channels. She stops at that Channel. The focus of the news is Kashmir again. The newsreader announces about the clashes between the protestors and the security forces. She again changes the channel and finally stops at a “Bhakti” (Devotional) channel.

Phoolaji is carrying forward the legacy,Customs and rituals left behind by her Late Mother-in-law.She has immortalised ‘Dulari’ by keeping her Photograph at the same pedestal as that of Devis and Devtaas in their small in-house temple.In the mornings and sometimes in the evenings too , incense sticks or Dhoop is gyrated reverentially around her photo too; along with the idols and photos of all major Devis and Devtaas to invoke their blessings!

The Show of life Continues …..

Samavar-The Heritage Tea Brewer of Kashmir

Samavar – the monarch tea brewer is perhaps the most distinguishable traditional utensil of Kashmir and is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural ambience of the valley. Enjoying enormous popularity, it is indispensable and central to every day Kashmiri life with the tea prepared in it being an inseparable part of the warm-hearted Kashmiri hospitality. Its overarching standing in Kashmiri culture has remained undisputed and unchallenged over the years despite the inflow of numerous contemporary appliances of similar nature in the market.

Samavar – Socio-cultural Significance

Samavar has carved out a proverbial niche for itself amongst the Kashmiri tea connoisseurs and steals the limelight at our every socio-cultural function. Its arrival and presence imparts an intimate touch of social warmth and cheer to every festive occasion. It also serves a deep societal purpose as it provides contextual relevance to our native conventions and time tested traditions. Its predominant presence is seen daily at breakfast and evening times in every Kashmiri household even now. Tea time is a wonderful family custom of Kashmir handed down to posterity by practice when all the family members assemble around the legendary Samavar to enjoy sizzling Kahwa cups. People relish endless chats, gossips and unconstrained talks over countless cups of tea prepared in it. Samavar by its utility also promotes family togetherness, emotional closeness and social cohesion.

The Samavar also enjoys a privileged position in the occupational part of Kashmiri life holding prominence during paddy cultivation, farming and fruit gathering activities. It also adds a vintage touch to celebrations, excursions and congregational gatherings. Samavar also adds radiance to the high octane atmosphere of the wedding functions of Kashmiri Pandits as well as Kashmiri Muslims. It acts as a comfort utensil as the tea brewed in it provides the required warmth to beat the bitter winter of Kashmir. The camaraderie with it is not broken even during despairing times and moments of gloom amongst the Muslims as it is used for brewing and providing Kahwa and Noon Chai (salted tea) to the callers during Fatehkhani on Chauhrum and Jumah Fateh.

Samavar is also integral to our social cultural expression. The arrival of the spring season with the bursting of almond flowers at Badamwari, Srinagar is incomplete without its presence. It also occupies a place of pride during social customs. The newly wed Kashmiri Pandit bride is required to serve tea brewed in the Samavar to the family members at the In-laws’ house in consonance with an age-old social ritual. The custom is known as ‘Chai Phirin’.

The Journey of Samavar

Samavar was introduced in Kashmir as an outcome of the Kashmiri association with the age old trade routes in the medieval times. The name Samavar is derived from the Russian word – ‘Samover’ and translates to ‘self-boiler’ or ‘self-brew’ in english. The innovative remodelling and improvisation that the Russian Samover received at the hands of Kashmiri artisans has resulted in the emergence of its exotic design and form.

Samavar enjoys cross-border acceptance and acknowledgement as it is closely linked with many cultures across the borders. Apart from Kashmir, it enjoys phenomenal popularity in Russia, Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Central Europe, South-east Europe, Africa, Morocco and the Middle East through its resembling counterparts. The lookalike utensil has diverse shapes, designs and outlines varying from place to place and may be cylindrical, spherical or barrelled in appearance and made from either plain iron, copper, polished brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) or bronze. The Russian Samover comprises of the main body, base, central chimney, faucet, cover, handle, crown ring and the steam vent key. The traditional Samover of earlier times used coal and charcoal for heating and brewing purpose while the present day ones are driven by electricity.

From Russia, the Samover made its entry into Iran about two centuries back as ‘Samevar’ in the Persian language. The Iranian Samevar’ employs Persian art motifs in its designs and outlines. The city of Borujerd located in Iran is one of the prime centres of its production where they are mostly handmade. Likewise, its lookalike kin, the Turkish Samovar is a metal container traditionally used to heat water and brew tea.

Samavar- a specimen of Kashmiri craftsmanship

The Samavar is an all-time favourite domestic utensil in the entire valley of Kashmir. It is one of the finest examples of the splendid art or craftsmanship and is known for its superb quality and distinct design. There are essentially two types of Kashmiri Samavars, the Qandhkari Samavars and the plain Samovars. The Qandhkari Samavars are made from copper and are exclusively used by the Muslims. In contrast, the plain Samavars are crafted from brass and are used by the Kashmiri Pandits. However, the stylish handles of both the types are made from brass. In earlier times, another type of Samavar was in vogue among the Kashmiri Pandits. It was known as the Panjaeb Samavar. Unlike the usual Samavars, it was uniformly globular in shape right from the crest to the base with a latticed lower part.

The Qandhkari Samavar has its entire outer surface carved with intricate floral and Chinar leaf motifs or geometric designs. Both its outer and inner surfaces are nickle plated, which is locally known as ‘Kalai’. In contrast, the plain Samavar is devoid of any design. Only its inner side is nickle plated which gives the surface a smooth finish and shine. The size of a Samavar depends upon its capacity to hold the number of tea cups. The Samavar used by the Muslims is usually bigger in size as compared to the one used by Kashmiri Pandits. It is sold by weight and its cost is related to its water holding capacity and size. The artisan who crafts the Samavar is known as ‘Thanthur’ in local parlance, whereas the designer who creates decorative carvings and patterns on its outer side is called ‘Naqash’. In Srinagar, the biggest and the most reputed market of its production is located at Gadde Bazar, Zaina Kadal, in downtown Srinagar. In addition to it, the spring town of Mattan in Anantnag, the village Nehama in Pulwama district and the hamlet of Wanmpora in central district of Budgam are known for their high grade and outstanding quality of Samavars. The handmade peg bottomed bronze tea cups, locally called as ‘Kenz Khose’ made at these places are prized for their high quality.

The Samavar is divisible in distinct parts. The middle segment is known as ‘Yaed’ or ‘Paytae’ in Kashmiri. It is the principal part of the Samavar. The lower most base is called as ‘Taelvather’ or simply as ‘chouk’. The portion above it is finely latticed which facilitates the passage of air needed for the charcoal to burn and glow. It is known as ‘Poung’. The topmost small circular lid is called as ‘Lokut Thanda’. It has a pointed knob at the centre known as the ‘Kalla’. This lid acts as the cover over the tubular chimney to extinguish the hot charcoals by cutting the air supply when needed. Beneath it is a bigger spherical lid known as ‘Boud Thanda’. Both of them are joined by a movable hinge which carries the name ‘Machil’. A tubular iron chimney runs vertically midway upto the base of the Samavar, which holds the hot embers. An extended curved part which has a beak shaped outlet at its upper end is joined at the outer surface of the Samavar. The arched part is known as ‘Nai’ while the beak shaped outlet through which tea is poured is known as ‘Hi’. It has a small hinged flap called as ‘Zev’ which regulates the flow of tea. The upper circular rim of the Samavar is known as ‘Kaaen’. An S shaped stylish handle is attached to the side opposite to Nai’ for holding the Samavar. It is known as ‘Thup’. Green tea, sugar, cardamom (elaichi), black cinnamon (dalchini), cloves (loung), black pepper (kali mirch) and crushed almonds are added to the water poured in the Samavar. The evenly distributed heat generated in the central chimney gives a conspicuous taste and a distinct flavour to Kahwa prepared in the Samavar. Both the kenz khous and flat bottomed khous are essential accessories of the Samavar.

Samavar – Preserving our culture

The heritage tea brewer- Samavar has also made its entry into the folkloric narrative of Kashmir. It figures both in the riddles and the famed folk form of singing – Wanwun. The riddles associated with Samavar run as “Aend Aend Aab, Munjbagh Naer” which means “having water outside with the blaze in the middle” and “Su kus janawar chu yas kalus paeth naer vuhaan tae tountae kin travaan ruth” which means “the animal that has an inflamed glow at the crest with its sprout pouring out reddish fluid”.

The Samavar is also praised in the traditional Wanwun singing at Kashmiri wedding functions. Some of the songs that find a mention of it are:
“Samavarus teungul treav, vah vah maam touthai aev” which means “put embers in the Samavar and keep it ready to welcome the esteemed maternal uncle”

“Aalae tae badam traav Samavarus vuch Sumcharus guil phoulnai” which means “put cardamom and almonds in the Samavar; it will heighten the bond of nearness”

“Roup sundh khous tae souna Samavarae, vuch chai kya mazadaar” which means “Have tea from the Silver crafted khous and golden Samavar and enjoy the unique flavour”

Kashmiris irrespective of their religious affiliation continue to have an unshakeable allegiance with the Samavar. The fast paced lifestyle and the advent of modernization has neither diminished its stature nor lessened its relevance. The Kashmiri Pandits have unquestionable adoration for this priceless possession that reminds them of their socio cultural roots in the valley. They have unwaveringly stayed loyal to it even in their time of exile. It continues to be the hallmark utensil at their socio-cultural functions as its presence till today amplifies the festive cheer. Needless to say, that it is imperative upon us to preserve this rich legacy of the Samavar so that it is not relegated to obscurity and lost in the pages of history.

By Upender Ambardar

Sancha Vidhya – A glorious gift of to Himachal Pradesh

In the times bygone, Kashmir excelled in many spheres of art, literature and culture, in which it achieved great heights. The cross cultural-religious strands that stretched between Kashmir and present day Himachal Pradesh successfully withstood the centuries old time-warp and refused to fade-away into oblivion. Apart from the natural brilliance of the landscapes, both the states share a deep rooted faith of the people in the time tested traditions, belief systems and ancient wisdom, which are enshrined in their holy scriptures. They form an integral part of our common heritage. The ancient Sancha scripture of Himachal Pradesh is an illustrious example of the same. It is a combination of Jyotish and Tantric knowledge. Even today, in the present scientific age, this ancient priceless knowledge is quite popular in Shimla, Sirmour and Solan areas of Himachal Pradesh. The ‘Sancha Granth’ is believed to have travelled to Himachal Pradesh from Kashmir hundreds of years back. The present day custodians of this ancient legacy, who are natives of Himachal Pradesh are believed to be the descendants of Kashmiri Panndits. The ‘Sancha’ treatise is a unique combination of ‘Mantra (sacred incantations), ‘Yantra’ (hallowed implements) and ‘Tantra’ (mystical hymns or invocations). The scripts of Sancha treatise are known by the names of ‘Bhatakshri’ or ‘Pabuchi’, which are Himachali variations of ‘Sharda’, the ancient script of Kashmir. In earlier times, the said script was also known as ‘Takri’.

In Himachal Pradesh, in addition to ‘Bhatakshri’ and ‘Pabuchi’, the ancient ‘Takri’ dialect has survived in many resembling forms like ‘Chambyali’, ‘Kalluvi’ Mandyali’ and ‘Sirmouri’ etc., which are the present day spoken dialects of Chamba, Kallu, Mandi and Sirmour areas of Himachal Pradesh. In earlier times, the scholarly and learned Himachali Brahmans were known as ‘Pabuch’ due to their demonstrative grip and hold over the ancient ‘Sancha’ knowledge. The ‘Sancha’ growth deals with a wide range of topics ranging from necromancy, black magic, witchcraft, occult effects and negative influences of evil spirits besides demonology. The ‘Sancha’ text offers solutions and remedies to the persons who are troubled by the negative influences of the above. In addition to it, all those persons, who are saddled by anxieties and worries arising out of afflictions by various ailments can find health assuring remedies by consulting ‘Sancha’ system. The ‘Sancha’ treatise also guarantees a triumph over one’s ‘hidden’ enemies by recitation of certain ‘mantras’ i.e. secret incantations.
Its help is also sought in adopting a religious recourse to the matters connected with almost all the Hindu Sanskars right from birth to death. In addition to it, ‘Sancha’ knowledge also aids in the recovery of stolen items by giving clues and hints about the identity of the thief, the time of the occurrence of the theft and number of persons involved in the act. An accurate and exact knowledge of the auspicious timing or ‘Hora’ is also possible by consulting ‘Sancha’ text. The word ‘Sancha’ owes it’s origin to the Sanskrit word ‘Sanch’ or ‘Sanchai’, which means a repository or a compilation. The Brahmans well-versed with the ‘Sancha’ knowledge are called ‘Pabuch’ or ‘Baat’. In addition to ‘Pabuchi’ or ‘Bhatakshri’ dialects, the ‘Sancha’ texts are also found in ‘Chandvani’, ‘Pandvani’ and ‘Butakhshri’ dialects. The script employed by the Brahmans of the ‘Panda’ sect is called ‘Pandvani’, while as the inscription used by the Brahmans of the ‘Bhat’ sect is known by the name of ‘Bhatakshri’. According to a legend, an ancient ruler of the erstwhile Sirmour Kingdom came under the spell of a curse by a female dancer. As a consequence, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Sirmour was completely submerged under water and the royalty became kingless. Depressed by the loss of entire royal clan and to ensure a new heir to the Sirmour throne, two ministers of the Kingdom namely Roymoan and Roy Gopal are said to have travelled all the way from Sirmour to Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir in the eleventh century A.D. The two Sirmour ministers are believed to have requested the then Kashmir King to send a Kashmiri Prince, who could take charge of the Sirmour Kingdom.

According to the oral legend, out of the two queens of the then Kashmiri King, one had an adopted son, while the second one named Sumitra was in a family way at that time. In pursuance of the then prevalent bestowal of alms custom, the King of Kashmir agreed to send his pregnant queen in the form of ‘Shaya Daan’ to the princely state of Sirmour. In furtherance of it and to facilitate the subsequent coronation of the Kashmiri Prince as a King of Sirmour, the queen Sumitra of Kashmir went to Sirmour. She was accompanied by a host of Rishis, saints, learned Brahmans, bards, artists and ministrels, in addition to numerous footmen and domestics. The accompanying Kashmiri Pandits are said to have carried with them their prized possession the ‘Sancha’ knowledge system. In the historical documents of Himachal, this notable event is recorded in the following lines “Loia Aana Mangtoo, Purohit Sath Loia Aana Raoy Baat Loia Aana Vikram Samvat Saat thi todi 1152 Mahina Magh.” It fully affirms and supports the historical fact that the carriers of the ‘Sancha’ treatise or knowledge to Himachal Pradesh were none other than the Kashmiri Pandits. Corresponding to the above Vikram Samvat, the exact year of the said event can be said to be 1095 AD.

The Kashmiri origin of the ‘Sancha’ treatise is further collaborated by the fact that even today before consulting the ‘Sancha’ text, Himachali Brahmans pay obeisance to Kashmir in the following lines, “Vidhya Suri Kashmiri Lagan dekh Shodan Vichar”. The Sancha Granth has detailed information about astrology, planetary placements, interpretation of Zodiac and planetary movements. Based on the intricate knowledge of ‘Sancha Granth’, the ‘Pabuchi’ scholars prepare a local variation of almanac (Jantri) called ‘Chri’. The three important components of ‘Chri’ are ‘Var’ i.e. day of the week or an occasion, ‘Tithi’ i.e. a lunar day or date and the planetary movements and their positions. The ‘Chiri’ is based on the solar planetary system, which regards Baisakhi as the first day of the New Year. To get solutions, answers and remedies for the different paradoxes that rock the day to day life, the ‘Sancha’ text is always consulted for the required help. Resembling a gambling dice, the ‘pasha’ or ‘pasa’ is employed in deciphering the required information from the ‘Sancha’ text. The ‘pasha’ or ‘pasa’ has an inscription of four numerical digits marked as 0,00,000 and 0000, which have the corresponding numerical strength of 1,2,3 and 4 respectively. These numerical digits are marked on the individual pages separately. Each numerical digit with an individual value of sixteen ‘Horas’ make a sum total of sixty four ‘Horas’, with one ‘Hora’ being equal to one twenty fourth part of a day.

The ‘Pashas’ or ‘Pasa’ are specially prepared only on auspicious days and involve elaborate religious rituals. The different ‘Horas’ that are in-vogue in the ‘Sancha Granth’ are known as ‘Kaalgaymi Hora’, ‘Bhoot Prashan Hora’, ‘Lagan Ki Hora’ and ‘Tithi Ki Hora’ etc. The square shaped ‘pasha’ or ‘pasa’ is usually made up of an elephant tooth, being 1½ to 2 inches in length and with the width of a finger. According to a belief in Sirmour area, the ‘Yantra’ and ‘Lagans’ made from the soil brought from the village Chanan, give better results while consulting ‘Sancha’ text. The Brahmans engaged in the ‘Sancha’ profession take every care to maintain the knowledge secrecy and imparting of it’s knowledge is confined only within the family.

The Kashmiri origin of the ‘Sancha’ text has also been acknowledged by Sh. Sudershan Vashisht, who is a well known author and researcher of Himachal Pradesh and has done note-worthy research work in this direction. The ancient and precious Sancha texts are also found in tehsil Chopal, tehsil Shilayi and Chakrota area of Uttar Pradesh.Pandit Om Prakash and Pandit Devi Ram, the native Brahmans of the village Khadanka in Sirmour are experts in Sancha knowledge and it’s system. Another Brahman named Pandit Shivanand, a resident of the village Janloag in Sirmour has also thorough knowledge of ‘Sancha’ texts. He makes accurate predictions based on it’s knowledge. Pt. Mohan Lal, a native of the village Dehar in Sirmour is a well-known name due to his thorough and intimate Sancha knowledge. The present day experts of Sancha Vidhya acknowledge their Kashmiri origin and lineage.
Undoubtedly, ‘Sancha’ is an ancient and sacred knowledge of Kashmiri origin, which is an integral part of our historical cultural heritage. It is a glorious reminder of our rich past and the proud contribution of Kashmiri Pandits, who have left an indelible mark on the pages of history.

(By Upendar Ambardar)

Pitra Paksh -Remembering Ancestors

Every year a fortnight in the Hindu calendar month of Ashwin is observed in the fond memory of our ancestors. This period is referred as Shraddha or Pitra Paksha. The Shraddha – is derived from Shraddha which means faith. Hence the faith in one’s ancestors’ makes the mortals observe some customary rituals year on year with reverence and faith in their memories when the ancestors are no more alive.

The story goes that The King Karna the famous warrior of Mahabharata was granted heaven after the war. Karna was famous for his charity throughout his life and earned a sobriquet of Dhan Veer – The one who gives away everything in charity. So much so that during the war of Kurushetra he gave away his protective shield when Lord Indra disguised as seeker asked for the same. However, in heaven Karna was offered precious Gems, Gold and other items instead of food and water. Puzzled by this treatment Karna asked the gods about this. On this Lord Indra told him that he had been giving only gold and gems as a charity but had never given food and water to the poor or deserving people hence he was given same treatment in heaven. Karna requested gods to give him a chance to correct his anomalies and the same was granted to him and he was asked to go back to earth for some days to feed poor so as to get rid of the problem. Hence, this period of the year is observed in giving food, water and clothing to poor and also performing rituals associated with it.

The ritual of shradha is done as it is believed that ceremony shall enable forefathers to ascend higher plane of existence. Besides relieving the ancestors from traps of unfulfilled wishes. We owe our existence from our ancestors and forefathers. Therefore, this is the time when we can remember them and repay our debt.

Shradha is the only way when ancestors receive our oblations and hence get pleased. This results in peace to them and happiness in their families.
The detailed rituals of Shradha are performed by priests who follow the manual as per the scriptures and litany of ceremonies. The elder of the family keeps the fast in memory of deceased besides offering each Pind in the name of the ancestors who are no more alive.

The message of Pitru paksh as envisaged by our Rishis are :- ​

Remembering – Pitru Paksh also enables us to think that this life is transitory and one day we too would pass. Therefore, it is the time to remember our forefathers and simultaneously be good to elders in our family.
Sharing – It also cultivates a habit of giving away things like food and clothes in charity among poor destitute thus inculcating the spirit of sharing.
Good Deeds – The Shradha also makes us remember the good deeds of our ancestor’s which act as a catalyst in us to follow the footsteps and carry on the legacy of goodness shown by them.
Family Lineage – This fortnight also makes us remember all the ancestors who were in the family thus, passing their existential journey among our progeny so that they can remember the family tree and linages.
Focus on Spiritual – The rituals wean us away from the grind of day to day material world and forces us to think on the matters more spiritual than mundane in nature thus, forcing us to think about our existence and role in families, societies and nation of which we are an integral part and parcel.

According to Neelmat Puran the important places for performing Shradha are at Lake Gangabal in Kangan besides at places like Shadipur which is the confluence of river Vitista (Jhelum) and Sindhu, Martand (Mattan) in Anantnag, Kapalmochan in Shopian and shores of Vitista. Performing sharda at these given places elevates the soul journey of dead to higher planes besides granting peace and spiritual merits to the families. In Jammu the places of performing Shradha are Uttarbani in Kathua and Ghats of Chandrabhaga at Akhnoor.

The other important places across India where such detailed rituals are performed since time immemorial are at Haridwar in Uttrakhand, Varanasi & Allahabad in U.P., Gaya in Bihar, Pushker in Rajasthan, Nashik in Maharashtra, Gokarna in Karnataka, Rameshwaram in T.N.

Therefore, lets resolve in this pitra paksha that we shall share our happiness, food, clothing with those who are neglected, poor, destitute and orphans so that we embrace them a part of our society and also take a pledge that we make the life our elders in family more comfortable which they deserve and which we owe to them as their progeny.

By-Sunil Raina Rajanaka

Ruins of Sun Temple Kashmir

Resolving Kashmir crisis!

Resolving Kashmir crisis!

Ever since Kashmir acceeded to India in 1947, Pakistan has tried their best to snatch it from India. Their desire ,action or attempt to balkanise J&k is based on their belief that since Kashmir is Muslim majority; hence it should become a part of Pakistan.

My point is not to highlight the Hindu-Muslim angle of Kashmir; rather it is about the situations that led to the birth of new nations!

The contribution of Pakistanis in making the Pakistan was absolutely nothing.
Yes, Nothing at all.

Had it not been for the weak Great Britain of 1940’s; Pakistan would not have seen its day. Or for that matter-India.

Both India and Pakistan got their Independence accidentally. Of course the Indians were struggling since 1800’s to free themselves from East India company or the Britishers. But, it was the weak British, that subsequently paved in the way for the Independent India.

Because of the wars, particularly the first and second World War; The British Nation had become weak. It was no longer feasible or profitable for them to hold on to their Indian colony.

So, they had to let it go. And that is what they did.Their withdral led to the birth of India and Pakistan(west and East).

It is an historical fact that new Nations are born because of Wars and old nations are obliterated because of wars.

War-is one of the key factors.The other is the sentiments of the people of Area-for which a war is fought. Example is that of Bangladesh. The sentiments of the people as well as war between India and Pakistan gave birth to a country -Bangladesh.

Coming back to Kashmir, and analysing it from the point of History; somehow, it seems that the permanent solution to kashmir imbroglio too will get from a war. A war that will be fought amongst many nation -including India and Pakistan.

I suspect that the Indian think tank knows it too well. That is why since last 70 years, they are not actually taking any steps to permanently solve the problem.

The focus of the subsequent Govts. at state or at center, at best is to focus on smooth administration and sadly, Their focus has never been to resolve the problem .

The administration has given in to some of the unethical demands by the promoters and propogaters of Anti -India propaganda.

Under this propaganda, and the subsequent compulsion of Administration to yield in to the demands -just to show that everything is under control- They have not been able to rehabilitate the Kashmiri Hindus in Kashmir.

The Indian Govt-including Modi Govt. -will never rehabilitate the Kashmiri Hindus in Kashmir.Because their focus like their predecessors is not on the solution of Kashmir; but on Smooth Administration.
The same reason explains, why till date, India has not been able to get back P. O. K(Pakistan occupied Kashmir).

Apart from the war, that decides majorly on the outcome of the birth, accession or cesession of a Geographical area; the sentiments of the people of the area too play a major role.

The approach of Pakistan is to alienate the Kashmiri Muslims by fanning their Muslim identity and the sentiments associated with it, whereas, it looks like India is waiting for the outbreak of a major war.

Time is a crucial factor.
Pakistan-in the last few decades channelised their energy and focused on the sentiments of Kashmiri Muslims. It successfully Pakistanized a huge segment of Indian Kashmiri Muslims .

India on the other hand too did well tactically. They have manged to keep J&k with them under adverse conditions and it seems that they will not let it go-like Pakistanis did in case of Bangladesh.

In this tug of war,
the stronger will win….

Asifa Murder-the war of narratives

A young eight year innocent Girl-Asifa is raped and murdered brutally in Jan 2018 in predominantly-Hindu region of J&k. The incident is condemnable and the culprits should be hanged to Death- irrespective of their ethnicity or religion.

What seems to be a case of crime has turned out to be a case of palpable political as well as religious division.A division that has its base on decades of mistrust, political subjugation and dichotomous chauvinism . The truth -it seems is gasping for justice in between the chasms of the asperasions of the people of Jammu region and its political and religious opposite-the Kashmir region.

The notion that the people of other region is here to eat my share of resources, jobs, business as well as identity is so deeply dipped in mistrust and suspicion ,that even a normal innocuous action ,raises many eyebrows and infers meaning according to the mass perspective of the region one belongs to.

And these perspective and opposite narratives are the result of decades old political hegemony that one region wields over the other.

Hence, the general masses of Hindu-Jammu are not wrong in their demand to submit the Asiya-case over to CBI.

This war of narratives has inferred different steps of Govt. with different meanings by the people of two regions, according to their political understanding; which may or may not be true.

But that hardly matters.

What is more important is the belief and the perspectives of the people of jammu-who feel that the accused Sanji Ram and his accomplices have been framed because of being a Hindu. And that is why they want an CBI enquiry into the whole incident.

On the other hand, the general belief of the Muslims of India is that the Girl was raped and murdered because she was a Muslim.

The communists especially from Kerala-who have been pushed to the brink of extinction after Tripura fallout, have left no stone unturned to further fan the sentiments of Muslim for their own political gains. The communists in their propaganda have deprecated the symbols of Hinduism blatantly .To get some more time to -what looks like a definite existential threat-they have moved a step further and have portrayed the incident as casteist and a case of classical Brahminism.
By the way, the main accused of Kathua is a Brahman.

The Hindus of J&K also see a political conspiracy in giving this case to Advocate Deepika Thusso Singh-who is fighting on behalf of the deceased Girl, as well as SSP Romesh Kumar Jalla -who headed the S. I. T and apprehended the accused. They feel that this step has been taken to break the bonhomie between the Kashmir Hindus and Dogras.

With so many conspiracy angles involved in this case; no doubt, it is not going to be easy for the Govt. to bring this case to its logical end. Whatever step they are taking, is being keenly watched by the people of two regions. And since, there is a deep mistrust between the two Regions,

I fear

Even the justice might want to delay itself.

Navreh-the new year of Kashmiri Hindus

As winter’s frost gives way to amiable spring,  J&K wakes up to greetings of Navreh Mubarak,  writes SUNIL RAINA RAJANAKA If you happen to be in Kashmir on the first day of the Chaitra month,  you will see Kashmiri Pandits greeting everyone with a warm,  hearty ‘Navreh Mubarak!’The day heralds the New Year as well as the spring season, with the frost giving way to pleasant weather. This year, Navreh will be celebrated on March 18.   In Bringesh Samhita — a compendium of the Mahatamayas of all prominent tirthas of Kashmir — there is a chapter on Navreh which mentions a dialogue between Shiva and Parvati, where the goddess is keen to understand the importance of time, cycle of evolution and dissolution.

Shiva tells her that on Navreh, Brahma initiated Creation with the first rays of the sun falling on the world.   To celebrate Navreh — beginning of kaal, time and of the world — Kashmiri Hindus worship Shiva, Parvati and their son Ganesha for merit and well-being,  wear new clothes, and take part and in cultural programmes.   The day begins with looking at Thal Barun, a thaal, plate filled with auspicious items for prosperity. The large plate contains items like paddy, walnuts, sweet roti, cooked rice,  curd, pen, book, coins, a piece of gold ornament, salt, seasonal flowers, a medicinal herb called vai and a mirror.

Also placed on the plate are the new almanac and a photo of Kreel-Pach, the family deity.    The thaal is prepared overnight,  covered with a piece of cloth and kept in the prayer room. The next day, well before daybreak, the oldest woman of the house, usually the grandmother or mother,  goes around the house waking up family members one by one, asking them to open their eyes and first look at the plate, before beginning their daily chores.   Known as Buth Vuchun, the ritual of looking at the plate is said to bring good luck,  good health, prosperity and wisdom.

Each item on the plate has its own significance. While paddy symbolises wealth and expansion, cooked rice stands for progression in life and physical and mental growth.   Curd stands for completeness, constancy and cohesiveness. The sweet roti represents engagement and amalgamation into one’s socio-cultural surroundings.   The walnuts indicate the human and universal mind; the conjoined kernels represent the four purusharthas, goals of existence — dharma,  discharge of duty;  artha,  acquirement of wealth; kama, gratification of desire, and moksha, liberation.

The coin stands for material strength and the gold ornament is the symbol of purity. While the medicinal herb indicates good health,  flowers represent optimism, fragrance and sympathy in life. The pen is for wisdom and self-illumination and salt for positive energy. The almanac represents the influence of time in our life and the need to respect time and lead a disciplined life. Kreel Pach,  the family goddess stands for trust in Her grace.   The mirror, due to its attribute of reflection, stands for multiplication of auspiciousness.

Later in the day, rice from the plate is used to prepare the traditional yellow rice taher. Sumptuous dishes are prepared for visiting family and friends.    People also visit Hari Parbat in Srinagar to pay obeisance to Goddess Chakreshwari by reciting hymns and praying for a prosperous year ahead. It is believed that on this day,  the Sapt Rishis congregate at this place to offer prayers to the Universal Goddess, thus starting the Saptrishi era. After the ritual visit to the temple, people usually head off to enjoy the almond blossoms in the gardens at the foothill.

The outing is incomplete without savouring the traditional nadir monje pakoras and kahwa,  and wishing everyone ‘Navreh Mubarak’!

 

By Sunil Raina