Treaty of Amritsar-1846

Treaty of Amritsar March 16, 1846

The treaty between the British Government on the one part and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu on the other concluded on the part of the British Government by Frederick Currie, Esq. and Brevet-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under the orders of the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, G.C.B., one of her Britannic Majesty’s most Honorable Privy Council, Governor-General of the possessions of the East India Company, to direct and control all the affairs in the East Indies and by Maharajah Gulab Singh in person – 1846.

Article 1 The British Government transfers and makes over for ever in independent possession to Maharajah Gulab Singh and the heirs male of his body all the hilly or mountainous country with its dependencies situated to the eastward of the River Indus and the westward of the River Ravi including Chamba and excluding Lahol, being part of the territories ceded to the British Government by the Lahore State according to the provisions of Article IV of the Treaty of Lahore, dated 9 March 1846.

Article 2 The eastern boundary of the tract transferred by the foregoing article to Maharajah Gulab Singh shall be laid down by the Commissioners appointed by the British Government and Maharajah Gulab Singh respectively for that purpose and shall be defined in a separate engagement after survey.

Article 3 In consideration of the transfer made to him and his heirs by the provisions of the foregoing article Maharajah Gulab Singh will pay to the British Government the sum of seventy-five lakhs of rupees (Nanukshahee), fifty lakhs to be paid on or before the 1st October of the current year, A.D., 1846.

Article 4 The limits of territories of Maharajah Gulab Singh shall not be at any time changed without concurrence of the British Government.

Article 5 Maharajah Gulab Singh will refer to the arbitration of the British Government any disputes or question that may arise between himself and the Government of Lahore or any other neighboring State, and will abide by the decision of the British Government.

Article 6 Maharajah Gulab Singh engages for himself and heirs to join, with the whole of his Military Forces, the British troops when employed within the hills or in the territories adjoining his possessions.

Article 7 Maharajah Gulab Singh engages never to take to retain in his service any British subject nor the subject of any European or American State without the consent of the British Governnent.

Article 8 Maharajah Gulab Singh engages to respect in regard to the territory transferred to him, the provisions of Articles V, VI and VII of the separate Engagement between the British Government and the Lahore Durbar, dated 11 March 1846.

Article 9 The British Government will give its aid to Maharajah Gulab Singh in protecting his territories from external enemies.

Article 10 Maharajah Gulab Singh acknowledges the supremacy of the British Government and will in token of such supremacy present annually to the British Government one horse, twelve shawl goats of approved breed (six male and six female) and three pairs of Cashmere shawls.

This Treaty of ten articles has been this day settled by Frederick Currie, Esq. and Brever-Major Henry Montgomery Lawrence, acting under directions of the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, Governor-General, on the part of the British Government and by Maharajah Gulab Singh in person, and the said Treaty has been this day ratified by the seal of the Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, Governor-General. Done at Amritsar the sixteenth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six, corresponding with the seventeenth day of Rubee-ul-Awal (1262 Hijri).

(Signed) H. Hardinge (Seal) (Signed) F. Currie (Signed) H. M. Lawrence


The scenic kashmir…

Kashmir-A religious war!

The whole world knows that Kashmir is on the boil from the last 27 years. An organised , well-thought attempt , backed by Pakistan is carried out in Kashmir. And a name coined for it is -Jihad.A religious war.

In the Muslim world, the easiest way to galvanize Muslim population is on the name of religion.And  Jihad is that wing of religion, that legitimizes the atrocities committed on their perceived opponents without compunction.  Pakistan backed by OIC is fully following the centuries old formulae and its foot soldiers who have commited the most heinous crimes are being promised Heaven and salvation by the religious Scholars.

The carrot and the stick policy by the proselytizers of Islam have had their share in Kashmir too. This policy has been responsible for the seven exoduses of Kashmiri Hindus from Kashmir.

In 1947,during partition of Pakistan, the macabre dance of death was going on with impunity in  whole of Indian subcontinent .Muslims were killing Sikhs and Hindus in the newly established country called Pakistan. And in the retaliation, Muslims were being killed by the Hindus and Sikhs in India.Even J&K was not spared.Jammu region too witnessed violence.

But not Kashmir.

In Kashmir, the Muslims protected the lives of Hindus and Sikhs. Some of them even laid down their lives in order to save the lives of their minority counterparts.All this happened because of the Charismatic leader -Sheikh Abdullah.He championed the cause of accession of J&K with India.And projected himself as a mass leader with a secular outlook.The majority of the Muslims stood and backed the decision of Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah -who pressurised the King of J&K, Mahraja Hari Singh to accede with India ASAP.

The secular credentials of Sheikh Abdullah proved to be a Masquerade, and he worked relentlessly against India , once he was dislodged from Power.But that is a different topic.

The leadership of Sheikh Abdullah during the partition  and the image of India among the masses of Kashmir  was positive and accession was by and large , accepted by the local masses.

Such was the confidence of Sheikh Abdullah and Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru on the masses of Kashmir- some scholars opine- that on the behest of Abdullah, Pandit Nehru approached the U.N for the resolution of J&K. Nehru wanted U.N to pressurize the Pakistan to give back -what is now known as POK .And it seems , from their actions that they were pretty much sure of getting back POK.

As it proved to be, they had underestimated the power of Religion over secular- Politics.

U.N came up with the formulae of Plebscite .But for the plebiscite to be carried out and implemented on both sides of J&K( in India and pakistan), it laid down some points or conditions. The first and the most important of them was to withdraw the armed forces from POK by Pakistan .But Pakistan never really followed any of the points laid out by UN.Not only that, It also changed the local demography of the POK and gave away Aksai-Chin to China unconstitutionally.

All these points have made the U.N resolution to settle the Kashmir dispute redundant.

The secular fabric of Kashmir that prevailed in 1947 was totally Islamized by 1989-90 and the same people who had protected the Hindu minorities in Kashmir, became the perpetrators of Genocide and forced exile of Kashmiri Hindus.

And it was not impromptu.

Pakistan was created for the disgruntled Muslims of Indian subcontinent and the partition was purely religious based. An attempt is being made to replicate the formulae by Pakistan in Kashmir. The name given to Kashmir-imbroglio by the Muslim  countries and their media is Jihad-The religious war.

But is it really jihad?

The whole minority Hindu community was forced to flee their Hearth and Homes by the terrorists-who call themselves Mujahids.The word Mujahid means a religious warrior. These so-called-religious warriors carried out the Genocide  of the Hindu minority of Kashmir without  Qualm.

The masses of Kashmir who were primarily following the Sufi-Rishi tradition, have been brainwashed by the Mullahs and Maulivis to follow the more puritanical, and strict form of Islam in the form of Wahabi-Islam; that does not tolerate any form of religious pluralism or dissent.

The Maulvis and Mullas funded by the Wahabis and backed by Pakistan and OIC have successfully changed the religious and social fabric of Kashmir and have Brainwashed the common masses of Kashmir not only to denounce the ideology of any religion, but to make an atmosphere , where there can be no room for the florishment of any other religion except theirs.  To motivitate the masses in doing so; They have literally killed the thinking and logical faculty of their followers.

The height of mental-corruption can be gauged by the recent statement of one of The self -claimed Muslim intellectual of Kashmir , who just a few days back termed the Hindu minorities of Kashmir as ‘Cancer’.This merely reflects the moronic thinking and the view point , that of a medevial Bigot bereft of sanity and logic.

The point here is, there is no room for dissent or debate and there is no question of Religious equality in present day Kashmir.The so-called Muslim intelligentsia have devised fallacious theories based on their interpretation of Islam not only to  justify the atrocities commited  on the minority Hindu community by a section of the majority population, but to term them as real justice.

And , all this is happening on the name of Religion.

It will be foolish of India to think that this religious war will be localized only to Kashmir.Turning a Blind eye to the internal security, and the minority appeasement of some political parties of India have already paved in the way for Global Jihad .

Time has come, when a proper strategy should be devised to counter the terrorism activities on the name of Religion.

And to term it as it is-“A religious war”

Kashmir…some photos.

Baisaran…a Highland meadow in Pehalgam Kashmir

An evening view of Habba Kadal, Srinagar

An engraved image of the Hindu Devi at the ruins of Avantipura, Kashmir

Beauty of Kashmir


On the way to Aprawat.Pic taken from the Cable car.

A view of Tangmarg…





Vishnu-The protector

Sri Vishnu is an aspect of supreme consciousness who dwells within animate and inanimate beings of creation and controls our inner recesses of our being by constant source of motivation, judgement and perception. Vishnu literally means “the one who encompasses the world” who controls processes of creation and as an interdweller or Antaryaami and yet is unaccomplished by myriad souls and thus is referred as Para Vasudeva.
Among various names extensively used for Vishnu are Narayana, Hari, Govinda, Madhava, Vasudeva, Janardana, Rama, Krishna, Srinivasa, Narsimha etc.
Vishnu is also referred as Peetambara and his common form famous among devotees is the one where Lord is standing in equipoise and is called as “Samabhangi”. In this form Lords color is of rain bearing clouds which signifies all pervasiveness and having four hands. The upper hand holds conch which symbolizes that he is the eternal communicator and thus his word is the source of creation, discus reveals that Lord annihilates the worlds, whereas lower left hand hold mace implying that he always upholds rule of law and suitably punishes those who create havoc whereas his lower right hand is in Varada Mudra which is shown as holding lotus that bestows boons. He sports garland of attractive flowers strewn with wild flowers and Tulasi. Vishnu has a mark on his chest which is called as “Srivatsa” and is representation of Lakshmi as both of them cannot be separated hence this mark. He is donning a necklace of rare gems called as “Kaustabha” and his head has a towering diadem studded with precious gems.
Vishnu is commonly famous through his Dashaavtaras most venerated among them being Rama, Krishna, Buddha. Subsequently there is a complete school of Vaishnavism who consider Lord as Para Brahama with multitude of other gods and deities as attributes of Vishnu. The Lord has various avtars such as poorna avtars, ansha avtars , avesha avtars , leela avtars and jnana avtars which are acts of Lord to communicate with the worldly beings and impart meaningful lessons to humans. All these forms have different attributes, weapons, appearance’s which extended from time to time.
Vaishnavism is the important cult of followers of Lord and are widely spread in Indian Sub continent. It is important to mention that all the Agamas pertaining to Vishnavism were written in Kashmiri at a place called as Predhuman Peetha which is now known as Hari Parvat. The litanies’ written are Panchratra Agamas totaling around 200 in numbers. All the rituals of Vaishnavism are as per these agamas.
According to Vishnu Puran, Vaikuntha is the abode of Vishnu and is most sacrosanct place which is final refuge to the liberated souls. In Vaikuntha Lord is said to be residing on multi headed serpent also known as Adi Sesha. All other chief deities are in full attendance singing hymns and eulogizing lord through their prayers. The Lord is represented with six qualities of Wisdom (jnana), Sovereignty (Aishwarya), energy (Shakti), strength (Bala), valour (veerya) and luster (Tejas).
The Tulsi plant worship is an important ritualistic aspect of Vaishnavism and is offered to Vishnu besides recitation of Vishnu Saahsranaam. Vishnu is said to reside in a pot where tulsi is grown and is offered daily to Lord.
The important places of veneration in Jammu and Kashmir are Naubandhana Teertha also known as Vishnu Pad or Kaunser Nag in Pulwama, Kashmir besides Varahamulha now known as Baramula associated with varaha avtar of Lord and Anant Nag associated with Sesha nag who is also known as Anant nag.
The Vishnu has been the most venerated God among the rulers and hence various temples were dedicated to Him especially by Lalitaditya and Avantivarman. The official patronage for building of Vishnu temples was given during the reign of Avantiverman of Lohara dynasty and a famous temple of Avantiswamin was built near Avantipora.
Later Sikh rulers and most importantly by Dogra rulers the temples dedicated to different forms of Vishnu were built and murthis consecrated in them. The notable among them which stands tall on architectural grandeur are Ragunath temple of Jammu and Srinagar.
All the iconographic orientations of Vishnu in these temples are ornate, aesthetically beautiful and highly impressive.


By-Sunil Raina Rajanak
(The author is a founder member Himalayan Heritage Foundation.)

Sun temple of Mattan


Genealogical Tables of Kasmir Dynasties according to Kalhan

20161128_1109592 20161128_1108242 20161128_1108072 20161128_1107532 20161128_1107042 20161128_1106542 20161128_1106402

Source-Rajatarangini by M.A.Stein

Maps of srinagar and parihaspura by A.Stien


peace and Humanity-A Kp’s view…


Humanity and violence  though antonyms, are at the extreme sides of the pendulum called History. The pendulum swings from violence to Humanity and back from Humanity and violence.

Before commencing further, I would like you to go back into History of Kashmir, when King Sikander Butshikan (1389-1413) was ruling over Kashmir. He broke almost all the Hindu-temples that existed at that time. According to W.R. Lawrence, the Aryan Saraswat Brahmans of Kashmir were given three choices-death, conversion or exile. “Many fled, many were converted and many were killed, and it is said that this thorough monarch (Sikandar) burnt seven maunds of sacred threads of the murdered Brahmans”. As for the statements of Hassan and Lawrence, six maunds of sacred threads of converts and seven maunds of murdered Pandits were burnt. The number of people, to whom these thirteen maunds of sacred threads belonged, might have been tremendously colossal. A mammoth number of the Saraswat Pandits also went into exile, causing the first disastrous mass exodus of the community.

His Son King Zain-ul-abidin, reversed the exodus of Kashmiri Pandits.He restored all the rights of Kashmiri Pandits, rebuilt many desecrated and broken temples and gave full freedom of religion to the Pandits. That is why, even today, he is referred as ‘BadaShah”-The great  generous King.

The former was an example of violence and the latter an example of Humanity.

In modern times, I am reminded today, how in 1990, my community of 5lakh Hindu minorities were forced to flee their hearth and homes in the dead of night. Hundreds of Hindu-temples were broken or desecrated . Many properties of the Hindus are still occupied illegally by the miscreants.


The mass agitation and the organized violence of 1990 was not impromptu. It was rather the effect of decades of hatred sown meticulously by the so-called-mainstream political parties of Kashmir. It will be pertinent to mention here the role of plebiscite front- the brainchild of Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah. Under the guise of Plebiscite, communal hatred was sown in the minds of the Kashmiris. An impression was given to the majority Muslim population, that they are being discriminated upon, because of being Muslims. The remedy that was suggested by the activists of this front was rather diabolical in nature. Hindu-subjugation was projected as the justice and hegemony of the majority-Muslims. During the two decades of existence of Plebiscite Front, communal hatred was successfully planted in the minds and in the polity of J&K.

1990 was the culmination of the hatred, mistrust and communal abyss. And violence was rather used as an expression of religiosity and freedom of expression.

The role of Pakistan in fomenting violence in Kashmir can not be condoned. In fact, they are the sponsors of the violence in J&K. They have overtly and covertly tried in 1947, 1965 and 1999 to capture Kashmir rather unsuccessfully. But, they have successfully projected their image as a savior of Muslims-at least among the Kashmiri Muslims. Since 1990, they have engaged India in a  low intensity warfare  by creating Terrorists and molding the minds of terrorists on the name of ‘Jihad’.


It becomes extremely dangerous, when violence against any community is being justified, particularly on the name of Religion. Mass-Rejoicement over the killings on the name of religion is  extremely sickening,  But, that is what happened with the Kashmiri Hindu minorities in 1990.

The local Mosques-that are supposed to give religious sermons-acted as mouthpieces of the perpetrators, who evoked hatred against the minority Hindus of Kashmir. The loudspeakers resounded with threats against Kps and Hindus. It acted as a tool to instill fear among the Hindus, At the same time, it also made it evident that they have complete control over the administration.

The local Government headed by Faroq Abdullah had totally collapsed. There was chaos all around. Democracy was replaced by mobocracy. And Kashmiri-Hindus were killed in the most grotesque and inhuman ways.

In 1990,Tej Krishan Razdan, came back from Punjab to his native village in Budgam District, as he had heard from the TV, and read in the Newspapers about the deteriorating situation in the Kashmir valley. The Target-Killing of Kashmiri Pandits had started. He wanted to make sure that his family is safe and was thinking of shifting his family to a safer place. Little did he knew , what was in store for Him.

On 12th Feb. 1990,in Budgam, He was accosted by one of his Muslim friends. He persuaded Tej Krishan, to accompany him to Srinagar and both boarded the Matador from Budgam to Srinagar. When the Matador reached Gaw-Kadal, Suddenly, his Friend, pulled out a Revolver and Shot him several Times in the chest. He was dragged to the Local Masjid and his Dead Body was put on display there. It was only in the evening, with Police intervention, his body could be secured.

He was killed mercilessly. He was labeled as an informer. So were hundreds of KP’s. It had become a normal practice to kill any KP and then label him as an informer. Before Killing an KP , the militant in many cases would subject the Body to dismemberment, and incidents , like gouging out of eyes, Multiple Fractures, Skinning of KP Victims took place. The inhuman way of Killing was a part of the Planned Strategy, that was carried out by the Militants backed by Pakistan. The message was clear to the KP’s that,

“Don’t you dare to stay here “.

Apart from the target individual killings of the Pandits; to keep away KP’s from coming back into the valley, the Pakistani Backed Militants also carried out Massacres’ of Kashmiri Pandits from Time to Time. On 21 Mar. 1997, in Sangrampra, 7 KP’s were led away in the dark and shot dead. On 25 jan. 1998, in Wandhama, 23 KP’s were massacred and the local Temple damaged. On 23 March 2003, at Nadimarg, 24 KP’s were massacred.

Not only that, to dissuade the KP’s from coming back, and instill a fear psychosis, the Militants confronted KP’s in Jammu region too.3 KP’s were Killed in Garhat Gool village, Ramban by the Militants impersonated as Army men. They identified and separated 5 KP’s amongst the passengers that were travelling in the Bus. There were Muslims as well as Hindu Dogras too travelling in the same Bus, but they were not touched at all by the Militants. The 5 KP’s were ordered to alight from the Bus. Sensing danger, 2 KP’s escaped from the clutches of their captors as one jumped down into the ravine and the other one ran up towards the Hill. The rest of the3 KP’s were Shot Dead. There was a 6th KP in the Bus, who escaped Death , as he did not revealed his real identity. Instead, he had introduced himself as a Muslim and was thus saved.

The message was again Loud and Clear to KP’s-“Don’t you dare to return, back to the valley”.

Having said so, It will again be pertinent to mention here that, for the normal human beings- who for the most of the time remain as just pure, simple ‘Human beings’, the above incidents will melt down their hearts. But, for the strategists and jingoist politicians of Pakistan and their kashmiri corroborators, It was all a part of well-planned strategy.

Pakistan is using Kashmir as a shield to its existential threat as a Nation. It has somehow galvanized its public on the name of Kashmir, by using phrases likes, “We the Muslims”, “Jihad” etc. It has unctuously projected itself as a messiah of Kashmiris. The fact however remains that, Pakistan has illegally donated part of J&K, i.e the Aksai-Chin to China-its partner in crime.

China, on the other hand is exploiting the natural resources of Baluchistan, and are using the sea  surrounding the Pakistan to further their regional hegemony and project itself as a superpower.

We know this fact that Pakistan is at the brink of inevitable balkanization. We all know, how the rights of Baluchis or Baluchistanis have been blatantly trampled upon by the Pakistan, irrespective of their common faith. We must remember that erstwhile East Pakistan too was a Muslim-Majority area, But they opted to be a separate Nation . This makes it clear that Religion alone can not be a binding factor. The local indigenous culture too is important.

But in case of Kashmiri Hindus-who shared the common culture with the majority community; Religious fanaticism  weighed down the centuries old Kashmiriyat-The kashmiri word for communal harmony.

The seeds of hatred sown by the selfish polity of Kashmiri politicians , Pakistan and its Kashmiri corroborators  have grown up to become the trees laden with the fruits of violence. And this violence has taken thousands of lives over the last 28 years. This violence has uprooted a whole community. And this violence has prevented the Kashmiri Hindu community to come back to Kashmir.

Before sheikh Mohammed Abdullah made the Plebiscite front, he had made another political Party – The National Conference-which still exists. It was Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah and his National conference who came to the rescue of Kashmiri Hindus and Sikhs in 1947, when Pakistan had attacked Kashmir and were selectively killing only Hindus and Sikhs. The comrades of National conference laid down their lives to protect the lives of  Kashmiri Hindus and Sikhs.

It is rather strange, that when most of India and Pakistan was burning in religious-Violence, Kashmir remained untouched and the Hindu-minorities of Kashmir felt safe there. However, the peace was blown into pieces by the violence unleashed by the Pakistani terrorists and everything changed.

Terrorism and violence are synonyms and they both are destructive for the mankind. To protect the mankind, the evil of terrorism must be completely rooted out. Any group or Nation, that is manufacturing terrorists must be dealt with Iron Hands.

Pakistan, we all know expertise in manufacturing terrorists. In fact, that is their only expertise. The world must unite together to fight this evil. We should not wait for another 9/11 attack, or London Bombings, or Mumbai attack, or for that matter, another Taliban or another Kashmir. These all are directly connected to Pakistan.

For the best interest of the world, Baluchistan and Sindh area should be taken away from the present Pakistan and announced as separate countries.

For the Kashmiri Hindus, The elusive symbol of peace-The Dove is still caged somewhere and so is the Humanity. It has been almost 27 years now, since Kp’s were ousted by the Violence unleashed on the name of Jihad. There is still a hope, that peace will prevail once again in the valley.


Time has come when the World must come together and wipe out the terrorism completely from the face of Earth, so that,  the pendulum will sway again towards the Humanity,  the peace prevail and the Doves free once again..