I am beholden to P.V. Rawal of Jammu for sending me a photograph of Allama Iqbal’s Kashmiri Brahmin family taken in Sialkot in 1931. At this time Iqbal was in his mid-fifties. He had already risen to the top as the greatest Urdu poet, at par with Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib. Although he was proud of his Brahmin descent, he had nothing to say about his Hindu relations. In this picture, the elderly lady seated in the middle is his grandmother, Indirani Sapru, nicknamed Poshi, wife of Pandit Kanhaya Lal Sapru. The man standing on the left in a shawl is Iqbal’s cousin, Amarnath Sapru; note the close resemblance to the poet.

The family traces its origin to one Birbal. They lived in the village of Saprain (hence, the surname Sapru) on Shopian-Kulgam road. Then the family moved to Srinagar where Iqbal and most of his cousins were born. Birbal had five sons and a daughter. The third one, Kanhaya Lal, and his wife, Indirani, had three sons and five daughters. Kanhaya Lal was Iqbal’s grandfather. His son, Rattan Lal, converted to Islam and was given the name Nur Mohammad. He married a Muslim woman ? Imam Bibi. The Saprus disowned Rattan Lal and severed all connections with him. There are different versions of Rattan Lal’s conversion. The one given to me by Syeda Hameed, who has translated some of Iqbal’s poetry into English, maintains that Rattan Lal was the revenue collector of the Afghan governor of Kashmir. He was caught embezzling money. The governor offered him a choice: he should either convert to Islam or be hanged. Rattan Lal chose to stay alive. When the Afghan governor fled from Kashmir to escape its takeover by the Sikhs, Rattan Lal migrated to Sialkot. Imam Bibi was evidently a Sialkoti Punjabi. Iqbal was born in Sialkot on November 9, 1877. As often happens, the first generation of converts are more kattar than others. Iqbal thus grew up to be a devout Muslim. It is believed that once he called on his Hindu grandmother, then living in Amritsar. But there is no hard evidence of their meeting and of what passed between them; Iqbal did not write about it. Though he had many Hindu and Sikh friends and admirers, he felt that the future of Indian Muslims lay in having a separate state of their own. Iqbal was the principal ideologue of what later become Pakistan. Iqbal’s mother-tongue was Punjabi but he never wrote in it. He used only Persian and Urdu, as did many Urdu poets before him.

There are many aspects of Iqbal’s personal life which have not been fully researched by his biographers. We know he married two or three times and that his favourite son was Javed, who became a judge of the Lahore high court. Iqbal’s affair with Atia Faizi of Bombay when they met in London is well-known. There must have been some correspondence between them to show the kind of relationship they had. When in Heidelberg, he was taken up by his young German tutor, Emma Veganast. This secret was divulged by the mayor of Heidelberg in a speech in which he named a part of the bank of the river Neckar after him ? Iqbal Weg. The Pakistani ambassador to Germany had the mayor’s speech mentioning the girl’s name suppressed. Iqbal and Emma continued to write to each other till the end of his life. The correspondence should be available in archives in Lahore and Heidelberg. Lovers of Iqbal, among whom I count myself, deserve to be presented with a fuller picture of their idol. We have biographies of Rabindranath Tagore revealing all his love affairs but none of the Allama telling us of the kind of man he was.
written by:Khushwant Singh
source:The Telegraph,India



  1. Posted March 13, 2009 at 9:51 am | Permalink | Reply

    hi there,

    I do not know much about the Pandits. I was wonderingif you would write an article about all of it for me, so I could put it on a post to get the message out? I get a few hundred readers a day, maybe it would help. Most people do not know about this in the US, I know this is the first I have heard of his.

    Would you be interested

    thank you,

  2. Wajid Ali
    Posted September 2, 2010 at 4:02 am | Permalink | Reply

    Iqbal was a Kashmiri and will stay a Kashmiri ethnicily. Religion is a separate affair. Kashmiris are the purest of Aryans (for this reason the Jews do not like Kashmiris) and Iqbal was an Aryan too. Like all Kashmiris he liked all.

  3. Koshur Mazloom
    Posted October 28, 2010 at 11:00 am | Permalink | Reply

    All these stories are nonsense. Iqbal’s father converted because he could not get a girl to marry. All Kashmiris know this.

    Khabaccha tamis aes mouj punjaeb. So how is he is a pure Koshur?
    Iqbal was a mongrel cross breed between a Kashmiri Father and Poonjabi mother.

  4. zainab
    Posted January 13, 2011 at 11:49 pm | Permalink | Reply

    great piece of history; can’t wait to share this with some of my more “passionate” pakistani fiends. indeed, those pakistani friends are shocked when i tell them that some kashmiri muslims, like myself, still retain their ancestral hindu last names, like pandit, raina and kaul.

    of the identity markers that separate kashmir’s muslims from pandits, religion is as superficial as having a long vs short nose or different colored eyes. at least to the more secular and evolved kashmiris.

    ps. the renowned author, salman rushdie, often talks about his pandit ancestry, proudly.

  5. kaf
    Posted August 5, 2012 at 2:18 am | Permalink | Reply

    its an idiotic essay.iqbal,was a devout muslim and as far as hindu lineage,then all kashmiri hindus were bhuddists.he was a proud kashmirimuslim,not proud pandit

  6. Posted April 29, 2013 at 1:15 pm | Permalink | Reply

    I appreciate you for publishing posts like these to keep up awareness.

    Please make sure to check out my blog site and follow it, too!

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  1. […] grandfather was a kashmiri pandit before he converted to islam under controversial circumstances. IQBAL?S HINDU RELATIONS kashmir blogs-Truth about Kashmir-" blog on kashmir" similar is the background of Quaid e azam and most pakistanis who trace their ancestary to hindus […]

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